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      Field studies and molecular forensics identify a new association: Idris elba Talamas, sp. nov. parasitizes the eggs of Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister)

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          Abstract

          A species of Idris Förster (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is found to parasitize the eggs of Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and is described as new: Idris elba Talamas, sp. nov. This is the first association of an Idris species with a non-spider host, and the association is confirmed with molecular diagnostic tools that enable identification of parasitoid and host from the remains of parasitized eggs.

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          Accumulation of native parasitoid species on introduced herbivores: a comparison of hosts as natives and hosts as invaders.

          Herbivore species newly introduced into foreign locations (hosts as invaders) are often attacked by native parasitoid species. Here we compare the structure and diversity of 87 such parasitoid complexes with those on the same herbivore species in their native regions (hosts as natives). Overall parasitoid attack rates are generally lower on hosts as invaders than on hosts as natives. Also, parasitoid complexes on hosts as invaders are generally less rich and contain a higher proportion of generalists than those on hosts as natives. Overall richness shows a weak tendency to increase with duration in the region of introduction over the first 150 yr, but the ratio of generalists to specialists does not change over this time period. These results, in part, parallel those for herbivore complexes on introduced host plants and suggest that common theoretical principles may apply to both trophic levels. The herbivores were also categorized by level of concealment and taxon (order) to determine whether life-style or phylogeny influenced parasitoid richness in native or foreign locations. No strong influences emerged. Our most novel result is a vulnerability-to-parasitism regression; the numbers of parasitoids attacking host species in invaded regions are correlated with the numbers in native regions. The biological characteristics of the herbivore as well as extrinsic region-specific factors may play important roles in setting parasitoid richness levels on hosts as natives and on hosts as invaders.
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            Skeletomusculature of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea):  head and mesosoma

            The skeletomusculature of the head and mesosoma of the parasitoid wasp family Scelionidae is reviewed. Representatives of 27 scelionid genera are examined together with 13 non-scelionid taxa for comparison. Terms employed for other groups of Hymenoptera are reviewed, and a consensus terminology is proposed. External characters are redescribed and correlated with corresponding apodemes, muscles and putative exocrine gland openings; their phylogenetic importance is discussed. 229 skeletal structures were termed and defined, from which 84 are newly established or redefined. 67 muscles of the head and mesosoma are examined and homologized with those present in other Hymenoptera taxa. The presence of the cranio-antennal muscle, an extrinsic antennal muscle originating from the head capsule, is unique for Scelionidae. The dorsally bent epistomal sulcus and the corresponding internal epistomal ridge extend to the anterior margin of the oral foramen, the clypeo-pleurostomal line is absent and the tentorium is fused with the pleurostomal condyle. The frontal ledge is present in those scelionid genera having the anterior mandibular articulation located on the lateral margin of the oral foramen. The ledge corresponds to the site of origin of the mandibular abductor muscle, which is displaced from the genal area to the top of the frons. The protractor of the pharyngeal plate originates dorsally of the antennal foramen in Scelionidae. All scelionid genera have a postgenal bridge developed between the oral and occipital foramina. The propleural arm is reduced, muscles originating from the propleural arm in other Hymenoptera are situated on other propectal structures in Scelionidae. The profurcal bridge is absent. The first flexor of the fore wing originates from the posteroventral part of the pronotum in Scelionidae and Vanhorniidae, whereas the muscle originatesfrom the mesopleuron in all other Hymenoptera. The netrion apodeme anteriorly limits the site of origin of the first flexor of the fore wing. Three types of netrion are described on the basis of the relative position of the netrion apodeme and the posterior pronotal inflection. The occlusor muscle apodeme is absent in basal Scelionidae, the fan-shaped muscle originates from the pronotum. In Nixonia the muscle originates posterior to the netrion apodeme. The skaphion apodeme crosses the site of origin of the longitudinal flight muscle. The lateral and dorsal axillar surfaces and the axillar carina are defined and described for the first time in Platygastroidea. The retractor of the mesoscutum is reported in Scelionidae and the variability of the muscle and corresponding skeletal structures within the family is described. The term sternaulus is redefined on the basis of the site of origin of the mesopleuro-mesobasalare muscle. The term speculum is adopted from Ichneumonidae and Cynipoidea taxonomy on the basis of the site of origin of the mesopleuro-mesofurcal muscle. The remnants of the mesopleural ridge, sulcus and mesopleural arm and pit and the putative border between the mesepisternum and mesepimeron is discussed. The mesopleural depressor of the mesotrochanter sensu Gibson 1985 originates from the anterior extension of the mesofurca and therefore the muscle is redefined and referred to in the present study as the lateral mesofurco-mesotrochanteral muscle. In Nixonia, Sparasion, Idris and Gryon both the lateral and median mesofurco-mesotrochanteral muscles are present. The lateral mesofurco-mesotrochanteral muscle is present in Platygastridae. The second flexor of the hind wing at least partly originates from the posteriorly delimited area of the mesopectus in Scelionidae similarly to some other Proctotrupomorpha and Chalcidoidea. The serial homology of this area and the netrion is discussed. The possible serial homology of the medially elevated area of the metanotum and mesoscutellum and the usage of the term metascutellum in Apocrita is discussed with the descriptions of correlated internal structures. The anterior metanotal wing process is located on the independent humeral sclerite in Scelionidae, similar to other Apocrita except Cynipoidea. The metanotal depressor of the metatrochanter originates from the humeral sclerite in Scelionidae as well as in some other Proctotrupoidea. The metapleuron is extended secondarily dorsally of the metapleural ridge and corresponding metapleural sulcus in Scelionidae. In Telenominae, Gryonini and Baeini the metafurca is located posteriorly on the metadiscrimenal lamella.
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              Molecular analysis of parasitoid linkages (MAPL): gut contents of adult parasitoid wasps reveal larval host.

              Metamorphosing insects often have complex and poorly known life histories. In particular, what they feed on during their larval stages remains unknown for the vast majority of species, and its documentation only results from difficult and time-intensive field observations, rearing or dissections. Through the application of a DNA analysis of gut contents in adult parasitoid wasps, we were able to selectively sequence a diagnostic DNA marker that permitted the identification of the host used by these wasps during their larval stages. By reproducing these results in species with different life histories, we excluded other potential sources of host DNA, confirming that after ingestion by the parasitoid larva the host DNA can persist through metamorphosis in the abdominal contents of the adult wasp. Our discovery considerably extends the applicability of molecular analysis of gut contents by enabling the documentation of food used by insects during their larval stages and thus increasing the accuracy and precision of food web studies. The 24% success rate of our approach is surprisingly high considering the challenging context for host DNA preservation, and we discuss the factors possibly affecting this rate. We propose molecular analysis of parasitoid linkages (MAPL) as a new method to document host-parasitoid associations at a faster pace and with unrivalled precision. Because of the key regulatory role of parasitoid wasps in ecosystems, which makes them the most commonly used biological control agents, MAPL will have immediate applications in both basic and applied biological sciences. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                November 18 2019
                November 18 2019
                : 73
                : 125-141
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.73.38025
                © 2019

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