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      Eicosanoids in carcinogenesis

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          Abstract

          Inflammation is the body's reaction to pathogenic (biological or chemical) stimuli and covers a burgeoning list of compounds and pathways that act in concert to maintain the health of the organism. Eicosanoids and related fatty acid derivatives can be formed from arachidonic acid and other polyenoic fatty acids via the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways generating a variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, resolvins and others. The cytochrome P450 pathway leads to the formation of hydroxy fatty acids, such as 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and epoxy eicosanoids. Free radical reactions induced by reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen free radical species lead to oxygenated lipids such as isoprostanes or isolevuglandins which also exhibit pro-inflammatory activities. Eicosanoids and their metabolites play fundamental endocrine, autocrine and paracrine roles in both physiological and pathological signaling in various diseases. These molecules induce various unsaturated fatty acid dependent signaling pathways that influence crosstalk, alter cell–cell interactions, and result in a wide spectrum of cellular dysfunctions including those of the tissue microenvironment. Although the complete role of eicosanoids, including that of the recently elucidated anti-inflammatory specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), e.g. lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins, is not completely understood, the result of unremitting chronic inflammation is fostering early stages of carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation facilitates the transition from a normal cell to a cancerous one. The disruption of homeostasis across a wide, but identifiable, swath of diverse molecular pathways creates a micromilieu which constitutes an early and necessary step in the 6-step sequence of carcinogenesis for the vast majority of cancers, termed “sporadic cancers”.

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          Most cited references 397

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          Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs.

           J R Vane (1971)
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            Cyclooxygenase isozymes: the biology of prostaglandin synthesis and inhibition.

            Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the most highly utilized classes of pharmaceutical agents in medicine. All NSAIDs act through inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, a catalytic activity possessed by two distinct cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes encoded by separate genes. The discovery of COX-2 launched a new era in NSAID pharmacology, resulting in the synthesis, marketing, and widespread use of COX-2 selective drugs. These pharmaceutical agents have quickly become established as important therapeutic medications with potentially fewer side effects than traditional NSAIDs. Additionally, characterization of the two COX isozymes is allowing the discrimination of the roles each play in physiological processes such as homeostatic maintenance of the gastrointestinal tract, renal function, blood clotting, embryonic implantation, parturition, pain, and fever. Of particular importance has been the investigation of COX-1 and -2 isozymic functions in cancer, dysregulation of inflammation, and Alzheimer's disease. More recently, additional heterogeneity in COX-related proteins has been described, with the finding of variants of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. These variants may function in tissue-specific physiological and pathophysiological processes and may represent important new targets for drug therapy.
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              Novel Functional Sets of Lipid-Derived Mediators with Antiinflammatory Actions Generated from Omega-3 Fatty Acids via Cyclooxygenase 2–Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Transcellular Processing

              Aspirin therapy inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis without directly acting on lipoxygenases, yet via acetylation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) it leads to bioactive lipoxins (LXs) epimeric at carbon 15 (15-epi-LX, also termed aspirin-triggered LX [ATL]). Here, we report that inflammatory exudates from mice treated with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and aspirin (ASA) generate a novel array of bioactive lipid signals. Human endothelial cells with upregulated COX-2 treated with ASA converted C20:5 ω-3 to 18R-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE) and 15R-HEPE. Each was used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes to generate separate classes of novel trihydroxy-containing mediators, including 5-series 15R-LX5 and 5,12,18R-triHEPE. These new compounds proved to be potent inhibitors of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte transendothelial migration and infiltration in vivo (ATL analogue > 5,12,18R-triHEPE > 18R-HEPE). Acetaminophen and indomethacin also permitted 18R-HEPE and 15R-HEPE generation with recombinant COX-2 as well as ω-5 and ω-9 oxygenations of other fatty acids that act on hematologic cells. These findings establish new transcellular routes for producing arrays of bioactive lipid mediators via COX-2–nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug–dependent oxygenations and cell–cell interactions that impact microinflammation. The generation of these and related compounds provides a novel mechanism(s) for the therapeutic benefits of ω-3 dietary supplementation, which may be important in inflammation, neoplasia, and vascular diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                fopen
                https://www.4open-sciences.org
                4open
                4open
                EDP Sciences
                2557-0250
                25 April 2019
                25 April 2019
                2019
                : 2
                : ( publisher-idID: fopen/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Theodor-Billroth-Academy®, , Germany, USA,
                [2 ] INCORE, International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor-Billroth-Academy®, , Germany, USA,
                [3 ] Department of Surgery, Carl-Thiem-Klinikum, , Cottbus, Germany,
                [4 ] Risk-Based Decisions Inc., , Sacramento, CA, USA,
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: b-bruecher@ 123456gmx.de
                Article
                fopen180013
                10.1051/fopen/2018008
                © B.L.D.M. Brücher and I.S. Jamall, Published by EDP Sciences 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 474, Pages: 34
                Product
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.4open-sciences.org/
                Categories
                Life Sciences - Medicine
                Disruption of homeostasis-induced signaling and crosstalk in the carcinogenesis paradigm “Epistemology of the origin of cancer”
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                4open 2019, 2, 9
                2019
                2019
                2019

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