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      Hypothalamic regulation of regionally distinct adult neural stem cells and neurogenesis

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          Neural stem cells confer unique pinwheel architecture to the ventricular surface in neurogenic regions of the adult brain.

          Neural stem cells (NSCs, B1 cells) are retained in the walls of the adult lateral ventricles but, unlike embryonic NSCs, are displaced from the ventricular zone (VZ) into the subventricular zone (SVZ) by ependymal cells. Apical and basal compartments, which in embryonic NSCs play essential roles in self-renewal and differentiation, are not evident in adult NSCs. Here we show that SVZ B1 cells in adult mice extend a minute apical ending to directly contact the ventricle and a long basal process ending on blood vessels. A closer look at the ventricular surface reveals a striking pinwheel organization specific to regions of adult neurogenesis. The pinwheel's core contains the apical endings of B1 cells and in its periphery two types of ependymal cells: multiciliated (E1) and a type (E2) characterized by only two cilia and extraordinarily complex basal bodies. These results reveal that adult NSCs retain fundamental epithelial properties, including apical and basal compartmentalization, significantly reshaping our understanding of this adult neurogenic niche.
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            A FLEX switch targets Channelrhodopsin-2 to multiple cell types for imaging and long-range circuit mapping.

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              Dentate gyrus NMDA receptors mediate rapid pattern separation in the hippocampal network.

              Forming distinct representations of multiple contexts, places, and episodes is a crucial function of the hippocampus. The dentate gyrus subregion has been suggested to fulfill this role. We have tested this hypothesis by generating and analyzing a mouse strain that lacks the gene encoding the essential subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1, specifically in dentate gyrus granule cells. The mutant mice performed normally in contextual fear conditioning, but were impaired in the ability to distinguish two similar contexts. A significant reduction in the context-specific modulation of firing rate was observed in the CA3 pyramidal cells when the mutant mice were transferred from one context to another. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptors in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus play a crucial role in the process of pattern separation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                June 29 2017
                June 30 2017
                : 356
                : 6345
                : 1383-1386
                Article
                10.1126/science.aal3839
                © 2017

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