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      Autophagy and inflammation in chronic respiratory disease

      1 , 2 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 1

      Autophagy

      Informa UK Limited

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          Autophagy: renovation of cells and tissues.

          Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation system by which cytoplasmic materials are delivered to and degraded in the lysosome. However, the purpose of autophagy is not the simple elimination of materials, but instead, autophagy serves as a dynamic recycling system that produces new building blocks and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis. Here we provide a multidisciplinary review of our current understanding of autophagy's role in metabolic adaptation, intracellular quality control, and renovation during development and differentiation. We also explore how recent mouse models in combination with advances in human genetics are providing key insights into how the impairment or activation of autophagy contributes to pathogenesis of diverse diseases, from neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease to inflammatory disorders such as Crohn disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Mechanisms of mitophagy.

            Autophagy not only recycles intracellular components to compensate for nutrient deprivation but also selectively eliminates organelles to regulate their number and maintain quality control. Mitophagy, the specific autophagic elimination of mitochondria, has been identified in yeast, mediated by autophagy-related 32 (Atg32), and in mammals during red blood cell differentiation, mediated by NIP3-like protein X (NIX; also known as BNIP3L). Moreover, mitophagy is regulated in many metazoan cell types by parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase protein 1 (PINK1), and mutations in the genes encoding these proteins have been linked to forms of Parkinson's disease.
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              Autophagy in human health and disease.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Autophagy
                Autophagy
                Informa UK Limited
                1554-8627
                1554-8635
                January 29 2018
                February 2018
                February 08 2018
                February 2018
                : 14
                : 2
                : 221-232
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
                [2 ] New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA
                Article
                10.1080/15548627.2017.1389823
                © 2018

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