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      HMGB1 promotes recruitment of inflammatory cells to damaged tissues by forming a complex with CXCL12 and signaling via CXCR4

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          Abstract

          CXCL12 forms a complex with HMGB1 that binds to the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and increases inflammatory cell migration.

          Abstract

          After tissue damage, inflammatory cells infiltrate the tissue and release proinflammatory cytokines. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), a nuclear protein released by necrotic and severely stressed cells, promotes cytokine release via its interaction with the TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) receptor and cell migration via an unknown mechanism. We show that HMGB1-induced recruitment of inflammatory cells depends on CXCL12. HMGB1 and CXCL12 form a heterocomplex, which we characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and surface plasmon resonance, that acts exclusively through CXCR4 and not through other HMGB1 receptors. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer data show that the HMGB1–CXCL12 heterocomplex promotes different conformational rearrangements of CXCR4 from that of CXCL12 alone. Mononuclear cell recruitment in vivo into air pouches and injured muscles depends on the heterocomplex and is inhibited by AMD3100 and glycyrrhizin. Thus, inflammatory cell recruitment and activation both depend on HMGB1 via different mechanisms.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Toll-like receptor 4-dependent contribution of the immune system to anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

          Conventional cancer treatments rely on radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such treatments supposedly mediate their effects via the direct elimination of tumor cells. Here we show that the success of some protocols for anticancer therapy depends on innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses. We describe in both mice and humans a previously unrecognized pathway for the activation of tumor antigen-specific T-cell immunity that involves secretion of the high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) alarmin protein by dying tumor cells and the action of HMGB1 on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed by dendritic cells (DCs). During chemotherapy or radiotherapy, DCs require signaling through TLR4 and its adaptor MyD88 for efficient processing and cross-presentation of antigen from dying tumor cells. Patients with breast cancer who carry a TLR4 loss-of-function allele relapse more quickly after radiotherapy and chemotherapy than those carrying the normal TLR4 allele. These results delineate a clinically relevant immunoadjuvant pathway triggered by tumor cell death.
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            High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1): nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal.

            High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), which previously was thought to function only as a nuclear factor that enhances transcription, was recently discovered to be a crucial cytokine that mediates the response to infection, injury and inflammation. These observations have led to the emergence of a new field in immunology that is focused on understanding the mechanisms of HMGB1 release, its biological activities and its pathological effects in sepsis, arthritis, cancer and other diseases. Here, we discuss these features of HMGB1 and summarize recent advances that have led to the preclinical development of therapeutics that modulate HMGB1 release and activity.
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              HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice.

              Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in pathogenesis. Here a potential late mediator of lethality is identified and characterized in a mouse model. High mobility group-1 (HMG-1) protein was found to be released by cultured macrophages more than 8 hours after stimulation with endotoxin, TNF, or IL-1. Mice showed increased serum levels of HMG-1 from 8 to 32 hours after endotoxin exposure. Delayed administration of antibodies to HMG-1 attenuated endotoxin lethality in mice, and administration of HMG-1 itself was lethal. Septic patients who succumbed to infection had increased serum HMG-1 levels, suggesting that this protein warrants investigation as a therapeutic target.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                12 March 2012
                : 209
                : 3
                : 551-563
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Research in Biomedicine, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland
                [2 ]Division of Genetics and Cell Biology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy
                [3 ]HMGBiotech S.r.l., 20133 Milan, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Immunology and Oncology, National Center for Biotechnology, Spanish National Research Council, 28049 Madrid, Spain
                [5 ]Merck Serono S.A., 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
                [6 ]Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, 20132 Milan, Italy
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE Mariagrazia Uguccioni: mariagrazia.uguccioni@ 123456irb.usi.ch

                M.E. Bianchi and M. Uguccioni contributed equally to this paper.

                Article
                20111739
                10.1084/jem.20111739
                3302219
                22370717
                © 2012 Schiraldi et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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