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      Pivoting the Plant Immune System from Dissection to Deployment

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7

      Science

      American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

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          Abstract

          Diverse and rapidly evolving pathogens cause plant diseases and epidemics that threaten crop yield and food security around the world. Research over the last 25 years has led to an increasingly clear conceptual understanding of the molecular components of the plant immune system. Combined with ever-cheaper DNA-sequencing technology and the rich diversity of germ plasm manipulated for over a century by plant breeders, we now have the means to begin development of durable (long-lasting) disease resistance beyond the limits imposed by conventional breeding and in a manner that will replace costly and unsustainable chemical controls.

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          Most cited references 93

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          Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection.

          Plants cannot move to escape environmental challenges. Biotic stresses result from a battery of potential pathogens: fungi, bacteria, nematodes and insects intercept the photosynthate produced by plants, and viruses use replication machinery at the host's expense. Plants, in turn, have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to perceive such attacks, and to translate that perception into an adaptive response. Here, we review the current knowledge of recognition-dependent disease resistance in plants. We include a few crucial concepts to compare and contrast plant innate immunity with that more commonly associated with animals. There are appreciable differences, but also surprising parallels.
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            The plant immune system.

            Many plant-associated microbes are pathogens that impair plant growth and reproduction. Plants respond to infection using a two-branched innate immune system. The first branch recognizes and responds to molecules common to many classes of microbes, including non-pathogens. The second responds to pathogen virulence factors, either directly or through their effects on host targets. These plant immune systems, and the pathogen molecules to which they respond, provide extraordinary insights into molecular recognition, cell biology and evolution across biological kingdoms. A detailed understanding of plant immune function will underpin crop improvement for food, fibre and biofuels production.
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              High-efficiency TALEN-based gene editing produces disease-resistant rice.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                August 15 2013
                August 16 2013
                August 16 2013
                August 15 2013
                : 341
                : 6147
                : 746-751
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
                [2 ]Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
                [3 ]Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
                [4 ]Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
                [5 ]Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
                [6 ]Two Blades Foundation, 1630 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, IL 60201, USA.
                [7 ]Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, 111 Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720–3120, USA.
                Article
                10.1126/science.1236011
                3869199
                23950531
                © 2013

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