Aims: To investigate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of topical latanoprost 0.005% and topical betaxolol 0.25% monotherapy in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Methods: Fortynewly diagnosed glaucoma patients were enrolled in this prospective, observer-masked, randomized, parallel study. Patients received either latanoprost 0.005% or betaxolol 0.25% for a duration of 3 months. Baseline evaluation included intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and cardiorespiratory examinations including pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements and spirometry. These measurements were repeated after 3 months. Results: Both latanoprost and betaxolol reduced IOP significantly (p = 0.001). After 3 months of therapy, the mean pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of the betaxolol group were reduced (p = 0.027, p = 0.07 and p = 0.016, respectively). No significant changes occurred in the cardiovascular measurements of the latanoprost group (p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in any of the spirometric measurements tested for both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Both latanoprost and betaxolol are safe concerning respiratory functions. Betaxolol may cause small changes in the cardiovascular system, suggesting that blood pressure and pulse rates should be checked before and in regular intervals after prescribing it for the elderly. Latanoprost seems to be a safe medication in view of absence of systemic cardiovascular and respiratory side effects.