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      Ischemia-Induced Renal Expression of Hyaluronan and CD44 in Diabetic Rats

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          Background/Aims: Unilateral renal ischemia during 30 min causes severe, non-reversible renal damage in diabetic (DM) rats, but not in nondiabetic rats. Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycosaminglycan involved in various forms of renal injury. We examined the role of HA and CD44, a major receptor for HA, in the development of postischemic renal injury in DM rats. Methods: The left renal artery of streptozotocin diabetic Wistar rats was clamped for 30 min. The HA content in the kidneys was measured. A biotinylated HA-binding probe was used to localize HA. Inflammatory cells and other cells expressing CD44 were identified by immunohistochemistry. Results: In ischemic DM kidneys the renal HA-content started to increase already after 24 h and significantly so after 1–8 weeks after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The relative water content of the kidneys increased in parallel. HA started to appear in the cortex of ischemic DM kidneys 1 week after I/R. In contrast, the non-DM ischemic kidneys showed no increase of HA and water content after 1–8 weeks after I/R. The tubular cells in the cortex and outer medulla demonstrated increased staining for CD44. In the same compartments the increased numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells also expressed CD44. Conclusion: HA-accumulation in the renal cortex might contribute to the renal damage seen after transient ischemia in DM rats by promoting inflammation through interaction between HA and CD44 expressing inflammatory cells. Furthermore, HA accumulation may contribute to an interstitial renal edema.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Hyaluronan (HA) fragments induce chemokine gene expression in alveolar macrophages. The role of HA size and CD44.

          Hyaluronan (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan constituent of extracellular matrix. In its native form HA exists as a high molecular weight polymer, but during inflammation lower molecular weight fragments accumulate. We have identified a collection of inflammatory genes induced in macrophages by HA fragments but not by high molecular weight HA. These include several members of the chemokine gene family: macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, cytokine responsive gene-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. HA fragments as small as hexamers are capable of inducing expression of these genes in a mouse alveolar macrophage cell line, and monoclonal antibody to the HA receptor CD44 completely blocks binding of fluorescein-labeled HA to these cells and significantly inhibits HA-induced gene expression. We also investigated the ability of HA fragments to induce chemokine gene expression in human alveolar macrophages from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and found that interleukin-8 mRNA is markedly induced. These data support the hypothesis that HA fragments generated during inflammation induce the expression of macrophage genes which are important in the development and maintenance of the inflammatory response.
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            Distribution of primary renal diseases leading to end-stage renal failure in the United States, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand: results from an international comparative study.

            This report notes the differences in the classification of the primary renal disease (PRD) used in different renal dialysis and transplant registries worldwide. The heterogeneity of coding systems complicates the comparative analysis of end-stage renal disease from different regions. Using data collected over two decades in the United States, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand, we present a method for reorganization of the classes of PRD that allows a straightforward comparison of retrospective data from these registries.
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              Ischemic acute renal failure: long-term histology of cell and matrix changes in the rat.

              The cellular infiltration and matrix accumulation accompanying acute renal ischemia and reperfusion have been frequently noted but poorly defined. The long-term consequences of ischemia may irreversibly damage the kidney. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (200 g) underwent unilateral nephrectomy. After five days, the left renal pedicle was occluded for 45 minutes. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 180 days postischemia (N = 6). Immunohistochemistry for monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Mphi, ED-1), myofibroblasts [alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)], collagen III and IV, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) were performed. Kidney weights of postischemic animals were increased at all time points (postischemic to controls, 1.47 +/- 0.21 to 0.94 +/- 0.12 g at day 8; 1.49 +/- 0.20 to 1.27 +/- 0.13 g at day 64; and 1.86 +/- 0.1 to 1. 24 +/- 0.2 g at day 180). Serum creatinine values increased to 0.42 +/- 0.10 mmol/L at day 2 but returned to control levels by day 8 (0. 05 mmol/L). Glomerular collagen IV was decreased from 2 to 16 days postischemia, which was accompanied by an increase in MMP-2. The fractional area of the interstitium was greatest at day 8 (19.55 +/- 0.91% compared with day 0 at 8.08 +/- 0.27%), with a second increase observed at day 180 (16.61 +/- 0.70%). Interstitial Mo/Mphi increased postischemia from days 2 through 8 (8.84 +/- 2.12 to 133. 32 +/- 14.04 per 0.91 mm2) and then decreased. Myofibroblasts proliferated locally (PCNA double labeling was demonstrated), and increased numbers were found from days 2 through 16 (maximal at day 8, 26.96 +/- 3.04%, compared with day 0, 0.88 +/- 0.11%). In the postischemic groups, collagen IV increased to day 8 (20.84 +/- 1. 30%), but then decreased to below control values at day 64 (2.22 +/- 0.15%) before returning to normal by day 180. Interstitial collagen III increased to 8 days (0.45 +/- 0.07% to 2.55 +/- 0.36%) and then decreased to control levels by day 32, but showed a marked increase to approximately 6% at days 64 and 180. Cellular proliferation (PCNA) was maximal at days 2 and 4 (affecting tubule cells and myofibroblasts but not macrophages). Apoptosis was maximal at day 8 (in both interstitial and tubule cells) in the postischemic groups. Marked changes in the accumulation of Mo/Mphi, MF, and collagen IV were found in this model of ischemic acute renal failure. The reversibility of functional and structural changes is in marked contrast to that found in progressive disease. The increases observed for collagen III at 64 and 180 days postischemia suggest that in the long term, however, further chronic structural changes may be observed.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                June 2006
                22 March 2006
                : 103
                : 3
                : e86-e94
                aDepartment of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala; bDepartment of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, and cDepartment of Pathology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; dDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
                92193 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;103:e86–e94
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 42, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/92193
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