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      Antibacterial substantivity of Carvacrol and sodium hypochlorite in infected bovine root dentin


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          INTRODUCTION: Various methods commonly used for cleaning and shaping root canals have not been successful in completely eradicating bacteria due to anatomic complexity and root canals irregularities. Disinfecting the canals with intracanal irrigants in addition to proper cleaning and shaping can produce a successful outcome. Antimicrobials with sustained antibacterial activity would be desirable for irrigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial substantivity of Carvacrol and 5.25% NaOCl in infected bovine root dentin.

          MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty dentin tubes prepared from bovine incisors were infected in vitro for 14 days with Enterococcus (E) faecalis. The specimens were divided into four groups including 1) Carvacrol, 2) NaOCl, 3) infected dentin tubes (positive control); and 4) sterile dentin tubes (negative control). Dentin chips were collected at five intervals (days 0, 1, 3, 7 and 28) using round burs with sequentially increasing diameters (which includes five layers of dentin) into Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth. In order to compare the pre- and post-irrigation antimicrobial activity of the irrigants the colony-forming units (CFU) were counted and classified as ‘CFU-before’ and ‘CFU-after’. After culturing, the number of CFU with the various experimental time and dentinal layers was recounted. Two-way ANOVA test was used to analyze the effects of time and materials. One-way ANOVA and supplemental Tukey HSD test were used for pair comparison.

          RESULTS: CFU was significantly reduced in NaOCl group when compared to all other experimental groups (P<0.05).

          CONCLUSION: The substantivity of NaOCl was significantly greater than Carvacrol. Further studies are required to investigate and approve Carvacrol as a final irrigant.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Characterization of the Action of Selected Essential Oil Components on Gram-Negative Bacteria

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            Influence of infection at the time of root filling on the outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis.

            This study investigated the role of infection on the prognosis of endodontic therapy by following-up teeth that had had their canals cleaned and obturated during a single appointment. The root canals of 55 single-rooted teeth with apical periodontitis were thoroughly instrumented and irrigated with sodium hypochlorite solution. Using advanced anaerobic bacteriological techniques, post-instrumentation samples were taken and the teeth were then root-filled during the same appointment. All teeth were initially infected; after instrumentation low numbers of bacteria were detected in 22 of 55 root canals. Periapical healing was followed-up for 5 years. Complete periapical healing occurred in 94% of cases that yielded a negative culture. Where the samples were positive prior to root filling, the success rate of treatment was just 68%--a statistically significant difference. Further investigation of three failures revealed the presence of Actinomyces species in each case; no other specific bacteria were implicated in failure cases. These findings emphasize the importance of completely eliminating bacteria from the root canal system before obturation. This objective cannot be reliably achieved in a one-visit treatment because it is not possible to eradicate all infection from the root canal without the support of an inter-appointment antimicrobial dressing.
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              Microbiological status of root-filled teeth with apical periodontitis.

              The present study examined the microbiological status of 100 root-filled teeth with radiographically verified apical periodontitis--the pathology (P) group--and of 20 teeth without signs of periapical pathosis--the technical (T) group. In the P group 117 strains of bacteria were recovered in 68 teeth. In most of the cases examined one or two strains were found. Facultative anaerobic species predominated among these isolates (69% of identified strains). Growth was classified as 'sparse' or 'very sparse' in 53%, and as 'heavy' or 'very heavy' in 42%. Enterococci were the most frequently isolated genera, showing 'heavy' or 'very heavy' growth in 25 out of 32 cases (78%). In 11 teeth of the T group no bacteria were recovered, whilst the remaining nine yielded 13 microbial strains. Eight of these grew 'very sparsely'. It is concluded that the microflora of the obturated canal differs from that found normally in the untreated necrotic dental pulp, quantitatively as well as qualitatively. Nonsurgical retreatment strategies should be reconsidered.

                Author and article information

                Iran Endod J
                Iran Endod J
                Iranian Endodontic Journal
                Iranian Center for Endodontic Research (Tehran, Iran )
                17 April 2009
                Spring 2009
                : 4
                : 2
                : 45-48
                [1 ] Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry/Dental Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, and member of Iranian Center for Endodontic Research, Tehran, Iran.
                [2 ] Instructor of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
                [3 ] Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
                [4 ] Postgraduate Student of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Javad Alizadeh, Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Ghods Ave, Enghelab St, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-2166460591. E-mail: ja_alizadeh@yahoo.com
                © 2009, Iranian Center for Endodontic Research

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article


                agents, antimicrobial, carvacrol, sodium hypochlorite, substantivity


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