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      Neoadjuvant Therapy Followed by Resection Versus Upfront Resection for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

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          Adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus folinic acid vs gemcitabine following pancreatic cancer resection: a randomized controlled trial.

          Adjuvant fluorouracil has been shown to be of benefit for patients with resected pancreatic cancer. Gemcitabine is known to be the most effective agent in advanced disease as well as an effective agent in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. To determine whether fluorouracil or gemcitabine is superior in terms of overall survival as adjuvant treatment following resection of pancreatic cancer. The European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (ESPAC)-3 trial, an open-label, phase 3, randomized controlled trial conducted in 159 pancreatic cancer centers in Europe, Australasia, Japan, and Canada. Included in ESPAC-3 version 2 were 1088 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who had undergone cancer resection; patients were randomized between July 2000 and January 2007 and underwent at least 2 years of follow-up. Patients received either fluorouracil plus folinic acid (folinic acid, 20 mg/m(2), intravenous bolus injection, followed by fluorouracil, 425 mg/m(2) intravenous bolus injection given 1-5 days every 28 days) (n = 551) or gemcitabine (1000 mg/m(2) intravenous infusion once a week for 3 of every 4 weeks) (n = 537) for 6 months. Primary outcome measure was overall survival; secondary measures were toxicity, progression-free survival, and quality of life. Final analysis was carried out on an intention-to-treat basis after a median of 34.2 (interquartile range, 27.1-43.4) months' follow-up after 753 deaths (69%). Median survival was 23.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.1-25.0) months for patients treated with fluorouracil plus folinic acid and 23.6 (95% CI, 21.4-26.4) months for those treated with gemcitabine (chi(1)(2) = 0.7; P = .39; hazard ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.81-1.08]). Seventy-seven patients (14%) receiving fluorouracil plus folinic acid had 97 treatment-related serious adverse events, compared with 40 patients (7.5%) receiving gemcitabine, who had 52 events (P < .001). There were no significant differences in either progression-free survival or global quality-of-life scores between the treatment groups. Compared with the use of fluorouracil plus folinic acid, gemcitabine did not result in improved overall survival in patients with completely resected pancreatic cancer. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00058201.
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            Curative resection is the single most important factor determining outcome in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

            Mortality rates associated with pancreatic resection for cancer have steadily decreased with time, but improvements in long-term survival are less clear. This prospective study evaluated risk factors for survival after resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Data from 366 consecutive patients recorded prospectively between November 1993 and September 2001 were analysed using univariate and multivariate models. Fifty-eight patients (15.8 per cent) underwent surgical exploration only, 97 patients (26.5 per cent) underwent palliative bypass surgery and 211 patients (57.7 per cent) resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Stage I disease was present in 9.0 per cent, stage II in 18.0 per cent, stage III in 68.7 per cent and stage IV in 4.3 per cent of patients who underwent resection. Resection was curative (R0) in 75.8 per cent of patients. Procedures included pylorus-preserving Whipple resection (41.2 per cent), classical Whipple resection (37.0 per cent), left pancreatic resection (13.7 per cent) and total pancreatectomy (8.1 per cent). The in-hospital mortality and cumulative morbidity rates were 2.8 and 44.1 per cent respectively. The overall actuarial 5-year survival rate was 19.8 per cent after resection. Survival was better after curative resection (R0) (24.2 per cent) and in lymph-node negative patients (31.6 per cent). A Cox proportional hazards survival analysis indicated that curative resection was the most powerful independent predictor of long-term survival. Resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma can be performed safely. The overall survival rate is determined by the radicality of resection. Patients deemed fit for surgery who have no radiological signs of distant metastasis should undergo surgical exploration. Resection should follow if there is a reasonable likelihood that an R0 resection can be obtained. Copyright 2004 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
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              Fluorouracil vs gemcitabine chemotherapy before and after fluorouracil-based chemoradiation following resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a randomized controlled trial.

              Among patients with locally advanced metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, gemcitabine has been shown to improve outcomes compared with fluorouracil. To determine if the addition of gemcitabine to adjuvant fluorouracil chemoradiation (chemotherapy plus radiation) improves survival for patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Randomized controlled phase 3 trial of patients with complete gross total resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and no prior radiation or chemotherapy enrolled between July 1998 and July 2002 with follow-up through August 18, 2006, at 164 US and Canadian institutions. Chemotherapy with either fluorouracil (continuous infusion of 250 mg/m2 per day; n = 230) or gemcitabine (30-minute infusion of 1000 mg/m2 once per week; n = 221) for 3 weeks prior to chemoradiation therapy and for 12 weeks after chemoradiation therapy. Chemoradiation with a continuous infusion of fluorouracil (250 mg/m2 per day) was the same for all patients (50.4 Gy). Survival for all patients and survival for patients with pancreatic head tumors were the primary end points. Secondary end points included toxicity. A total of 451 patients were randomized, eligible, and analyzable. Patients with pancreatic head tumors (n = 388) had a median survival of 20.5 months and a 3-year survival of 31% in the gemcitabine group vs a median survival of 16.9 months and a 3-year survival of 22% in the fluorouracil group (hazard ratio, 0.82 [95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.03]; P = .09). The treatment effect was strengthened on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.00]; P = .05). Grade 4 hematologic toxicity was 1% in the fluorouracil group and 14% in the gemcitabine group (P 85%). The addition of gemcitabine to adjuvant fluorouracil-based chemoradiation was associated with a survival benefit for patients with resected pancreatic cancer, although this improvement was not statistically significant. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003216.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Oncology
                JCO
                American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)
                0732-183X
                1527-7755
                February 10 2017
                February 10 2017
                : 35
                : 5
                : 515-522
                Article
                10.1200/JCO.2016.68.5081
                © 2017
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