José María Mora-Luján 1 , 2 , 3 , Adriana Iriarte 1 , 2 , 3 , Esther Alba 1 , 3 , 4 , Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Corral 1 , 3 , 5 , Ana Berrozpe 3 , 6 , Pau Cerdà 1 , 2 , 3 , Francesc Cruellas 1 , 3 , 7 , Jesús Ribas 1 , 3 , 8 , Jose Castellote 1 , 3 , 6 , Antoni Riera-Mestre 1 , 2 , 3 , 9 , *
28 December 2019
Background: We aimed to describe risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and endoscopic findings in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methods: This is a prospective study from a referral HHT unit. Endoscopic tests were performed when there was suspicion of GI bleeding, and patients were divided as follows: with, without, and with unsuspected GI involvement. Results: 67 (27.9%) patients with, 28 (11.7%) patients without, and 145 (60.4%) with unsuspected GI involvement were included. Age, tobacco use, endoglin (ENG) mutation, and hemoglobin were associated with GI involvement. Telangiectases were mostly in the stomach and duodenum, but 18.5% of patients with normal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) had GI involvement in video capsule endoscopy (VCE). Telangiectases ≤ 3 mm and ≤10 per location were most common. Among patients with GI disease, those with hemoglobin < 8 g/dL or transfusion requirements (65.7%) were older and had higher epistaxis severity score (ESS) and larger telangiectases (>3 mm). After a mean follow-up of 34.2 months, patients with GI involvement required more transfusions and more emergency department and hospital admissions, with no differences in mortality. Conclusions: Risk factors for GI involvement have been identified. Patients with GI involvement and severe anemia had larger telangiectases and higher ESS. VCE should be considered in patients with suspicion of GI bleeding, even if EGD is normal.