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      The usefulness of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products in the identification of COPD frequent exacerbator phenotype

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          Exacerbations of COPD (ECOPDs) are important events in the course of COPD, accelerating the rate of decline in lung function and increasing the mortality risk. A growing body of evidence suggests the significance of the “frequent exacerbator” phenotype. This phenotype seems to be associated with a more severe airflow limitation, symptoms, health-related quality of life impairment, and higher mortality. However, there is no described biomarker that would help to identify this group of patients.

          Patients and methods

          Patients with COPD in “D” GOLD category were monitored for 3 years according to events of ECOPD. Serum samples were collected from the patients. Circulating level of plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) was measured using commercially available high sensitivity kits. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the usefulness of sRAGE to identify frequent exacerbator phenotype. Log-rank test was used in the analysis of time to the subsequent exacerbation. Pearson ( R) or Spearman’s rank ( R S) correlation coefficients were used for correlation analysis.


          Nineteen patients were enrolled. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for sRAGE for the identification of frequent exacerbator phenotype was 0.81. Analysis identified the cutoff point as 850.407 pg/mL, characterized by a sensitivity of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.28–1.0) and specificity of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.66–1.0). Additionally, in the group with sRAGE ≤850.407 pg/mL, we observed significantly shorter time to the subsequent exacerbation: median of 32 vs 105.5 days ( P=0.03). Correlation analysis revealed significant negative correlation between sRAGE and the number of exacerbations requiring hospitalization during the whole time of follow-up ( R S=−0.53; P=0.02) and significant positive correlation with FEV 1 expressed as the percentage of reference value ( R=0.6; P=0.006).


          sRAGE seems to be useful in the identification of frequent exacerbator phenotype. This parameter may also be used in the prediction of time to ECOPD. Our findings should be confirmed in a sufficiently powered larger sample.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Frequency of Exacerbations in COPD: An Analysis of the SPIROMICS Cohort

          Background Current treatment strategies to stratify exacerbation risk rely on history of ≥2 events in the previous year. To understand year-to-year variability and factors associated with consistent exacerbations over time, we present a prospective analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort. Methods We analyzed SPIROMICS participants with COPD and three years of prospective data (n=1,105). We classified participants according to yearly exacerbation frequency. Stepwise logistic regression compared factors associated with individuals experiencing ≥1 AECOPD in every year for three years versus none. Results During three years follow-up, 48·7% of participants experienced at least one AECOPD, while the majority (51·3%) experienced none. Only 2·1% had ≥2 AECOPD in each year. An inconsistent pattern (both years with and years without AECOPD) was common (41·3% of the group), particularly among GOLD stages 3 and 4 subjects (56·1%). In logistic regression, consistent AECOPD (≥1 event per year for three years) as compared to no AECOPD were associated with higher baseline symptom burden assessed with the COPD Assessment Test, previous exacerbations, greater evidence of small airway abnormality by computed tomography, lower Interleukin-15 (IL-15) and elevated Interleukin-8 (IL-8). Conclusions Although AECOPD are common, the exacerbation status of most individuals varies markedly from year to year. Among participants who experienced any AECOPD over three years, very few repeatedly experienced ≥2 events/year. In addition to symptoms and history of exacerbations in the prior year, we identified several novel biomarkers associated with consistent exacerbations, including CT-defined small airway abnormality, IL-15 and IL-8.
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            Maillard reaction products and their relation to complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

            Glycation, oxidation, and browning of proteins have all been implicated in the development of diabetic complications. We measured the initial Amadori adduct, fructoselysine (FL); two Maillard products, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) and pentosidine; and fluorescence (excitation = 328 nm, emission = 378 nm) in skin collagen from 39 type 1 diabetic patients (aged 41.5 +/- 15.3 [17-73] yr; duration of diabetes 17.9 +/- 11.5 [0-46] yr, [mean +/- SD, range]). The measurements were related to the presence of background (n = 9) or proliferative (n = 16) retinopathy; early nephropathy (24-h albumin excretion rate [AER24] > or = 20 micrograms/min; n = 9); and limited joint mobility (LJM; n = 20). FL, CML, pentosidine, and fluorescence increased progressively across diabetic retinopathy (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). FL, CML, pentosidine, and fluorescence were also elevated in patients with early nephropathy (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). There was no association with LJM. Controlling for age, sex, and duration of diabetes using logistic regression, FL and CML were independently associated with retinopathy (FL odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.12, P < 0.05; CML OR = 6.77, 95% CI = 1.33-34.56, P < 0.05) and with early nephropathy (FL OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.10, P < 0.05; CML OR = 13.44, 95% CI = 2.00-93.30, P < 0.01). The associations between fluorescence and retinopathy and between pentosidine and nephropathy approached significance (P = 0.05). These data show that FL and Maillard products in skin correlate with functional abnormalities in other tissues and suggest that protein glycation and oxidation (glycoxidation) may be implicated in the development of diabetic retinopathy and early nephropathy.
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              Case fatality of COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis and statistical modelling approach.

              The aim of our study was to estimate the case fatality of a severe exacerbation from long-term survival data presented in the literature. A literature search identified studies reporting ≥1.5 yr survival after a severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation resulting in hospitalisation. The survival curve of each study was divided into a critical and a stable period. Mortality during the stable period was then estimated by extrapolating the survival curve during the stable period back to the time of exacerbation onset. Case fatality was defined as the excess mortality that results from an exacerbation and was calculated as 1 minus the (backwardly) extrapolated survival during the stable period at the time of exacerbation onset. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the estimated case fatalities were obtained by bootstrapping. A random effect model was used to combine all estimates into a weighted average with 95% CI. The meta-analysis based on six studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria resulted in a weighted average case-fatality rate of 15.6% (95% CI 10.9-20.3), ranging from 11.4% to 19.0% for the individual studies. A severe COPD exacerbation requiring hospitalisation not only results in higher mortality risks during hospitalisation, but also in the time-period after discharge and contributes substantially to total COPD mortality.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                29 November 2018
                : 13
                : 3879-3884
                [1 ]Department of Pneumology and Allergy, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland, joanna.milkowska-dymanowska@
                [2 ]Healthy Ageing Research Centre, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland, joanna.milkowska-dymanowska@
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Joanna Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Department of Pneumology and Allergy, Medical University of Łódź, Kopcińskiego Street 22, Łódź 90-153, Poland, Email joanna.milkowska-dymanowska@

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2018 Miłkowska-Dymanowska et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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