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      Integration of Error Compensation of Coordinate Measuring Machines into Feature Measurement: Part I—Model Development

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          Abstract

          The development of an error compensation model for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and its integration into feature measurement is presented. CMMs are widespread and dependable instruments in industry and laboratories for dimensional measurement. From the tip probe sensor to the machine display, there is a complex transformation of probed point coordinates through the geometrical feature model that makes the assessment of accuracy and uncertainty measurement results difficult. Therefore, error compensation is not standardized, conversely to other simpler instruments. Detailed coordinate error compensation models are generally based on CMM as a rigid-body and it requires a detailed mapping of the CMM’s behavior. In this paper a new model type of error compensation is proposed. It evaluates the error from the vectorial composition of length error by axis and its integration into the geometrical measurement model. The non-explained variability by the model is incorporated into the uncertainty budget. Model parameters are analyzed and linked to the geometrical errors and uncertainty of CMM response. Next, the outstanding measurement models of flatness, angle, and roundness are developed. The proposed models are useful for measurement improvement with easy integration into CMM signal processing, in particular in industrial environments where built-in solutions are sought. A battery of implementation tests are presented in Part II, where the experimental endorsement of the model is included.

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          Geometric error measurement and compensation of machines—An update

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            Self-Calibration: Reversal, Redundancy, Error Separation, and ‘Absolute Testing’

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              Modelling and Calibration Technique of Laser Triangulation Sensors for Integration in Robot Arms and Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines

              A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS) integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic—laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry—and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been developed. This allows the integration of LTS and AACMM mathematical models without the need of additional optimization methods after the prior sensor calibration, usually done in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) before the assembly of the sensor in the arm. The experimental tests results for accuracy and repeatability show the suitable performance of this technique, resulting in a reliable, quick and friendly calibration method for the AACMM final user. The presented method is also valid for sensor integration in robot arms and CMMs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                29 September 2016
                October 2016
                : 16
                : 10
                : 1610
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Design, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid 28012, Spain; r.damato@ 123456upm.es (R.D.); emilio.gomez@ 123456upm.es (E.G.)
                [2 ]Department of Construction and Manufacturing Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), C/Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040, Spain; rdomingo@ 123456ind.uned.es
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: roque.calvo@ 123456upm.es ; Tel.: +34-913-367-564
                Article
                sensors-16-01610
                10.3390/s16101610
                5087398
                27690052
                007c9241-c797-4703-902f-143d1b3c4be4
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 07 August 2016
                : 22 September 2016
                Categories
                Article

                Biomedical engineering
                cmm uncertainty,cmm error mapping,cmm verification,flatness measurement,angle measurement,roundness measurement

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