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      Impact of blood-brain barrier permeabilization induced by ultrasound associated to microbubbles on the brain delivery and kinetics of cetuximab: An immunoPET study using 89Zr-cetuximab

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          Integrated Genomic Analysis Identifies Clinically Relevant Subtypes of Glioblastoma Characterized by Abnormalities in PDGFRA, IDH1, EGFR, and NF1

          The Cancer Genome Atlas Network recently cataloged recurrent genomic abnormalities in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We describe a robust gene expression-based molecular classification of GBM into Proneural, Neural, Classical, and Mesenchymal subtypes and integrate multidimensional genomic data to establish patterns of somatic mutations and DNA copy number. Aberrations and gene expression of EGFR, NF1, and PDGFRA/IDH1 each define the Classical, Mesenchymal, and Proneural subtypes, respectively. Gene signatures of normal brain cell types show a strong relationship between subtypes and different neural lineages. Additionally, response to aggressive therapy differs by subtype, with the greatest benefit in the Classical subtype and no benefit in the Proneural subtype. We provide a framework that unifies transcriptomic and genomic dimensions for GBM molecular stratification with important implications for future studies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            The blood–brain barrier and blood–tumour barrier in brain tumours and metastases

            For a blood-borne cancer therapeutic agent to be effective, it must cross the blood vessel wall to reach cancer cells in adequate quantities, and it must overcome the resistance conferred by the local microenvironment around cancer cells. The brain microenvironment can thwart the effectiveness of drugs against primary brain tumours as well as brain metastases. In this Review, we highlight the cellular and molecular components of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a specialized neurovascular unit evolved to maintain brain homeostasis. Tumours are known to compromise the integrity of the BBB, resulting in a vasculature known as the blood-tumour barrier (BTB), which is highly heterogeneous and characterized by numerous distinct features, including non-uniform permeability and active efflux of molecules. We discuss the challenges posed by the BBB and BTB for drug delivery, how multiple cell types dictate BBB function and the role of the BTB in disease progression and treatment. Finally, we highlight emerging molecular, cellular and physical strategies to improve drug delivery across the BBB and BTB and discuss their impact on improving conventional as well as emerging treatments, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and engineered T cells. A deeper understanding of the BBB and BTB through the application of single-cell sequencing and imaging techniques, and the development of biomarkers of BBB integrity along with systems biology approaches, should enable new personalized treatment strategies for primary brain malignancies and brain metastases.
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              Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathways

              The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly upregulated in cancers such as in non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer. Various mechanisms mediate the upregulation of EGFR activity, including common mutations and truncations to its extracellular domain, such as in the EGFRvIII truncations, as well as to its kinase domain, such as the L858R and T790M mutations, or the exon 19 truncation. These EGFR aberrations over-activate downstream pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK and AKT-PI3K-mTOR pathways. These pathways then activate many biological outputs that are beneficial to cancer cell proliferation, including their chronic initiation and progression through the cell cycle. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that regulate EGFR signal transduction, including the EGFR structure and its mutations, ligand binding and EGFR dimerization, as well as the signaling pathways that lead to G1 cell cycle progression. We focus on the induction of CYCLIN D expression, CDK4/6 activation, and the repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins (CDKi) by EGFR signaling pathways. We also discuss the successes and challenges of EGFR-targeted therapies, and the potential for their use in combination with CDK4/6 inhibitors.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Journal of Controlled Release
                Journal of Controlled Release
                Elsevier BV
                01683659
                December 2020
                December 2020
                : 328
                : 304-312
                Article
                10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.08.047
                007f1d4a-7c38-4278-ad4d-86b515a6d1ec
                © 2020

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/


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