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      Revision of the Conwentzia Enderlein, 1905 (Neuroptera, Coniopterygidae) of China, combining morphological and molecular characters

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      Pensoft Publishers

      DNA barcoding, dusty lacewings, faunistics, identification key, taxonomy

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          The Chinese species of Conwentzia Enderlein are revised by integrating morphological characters and molecular data. Conwentzia yunguiana Liu & Yang, 1993 is proposed as a junior synonym of Conwentzia nietoi Monserrat, 1982, syn. nov. and Conwentzia orthotibia Yang, 1974 is proposed as a junior synonym of Conwentzia pineticola Enderlein, 1905, syn. nov. Moreover, a key to the adult males of the Conwentzia from China and DNA barcodes are provided.

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          Most cited references 17

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          MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods.

          Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from http://www.megasoftware.net.
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            DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates.

            We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.
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              Biological identifications through DNA barcodes.

              Although much biological research depends upon species diagnoses, taxonomic expertise is collapsing. We are convinced that the sole prospect for a sustainable identification capability lies in the construction of systems that employ DNA sequences as taxon 'barcodes'. We establish that the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) can serve as the core of a global bioidentification system for animals. First, we demonstrate that COI profiles, derived from the low-density sampling of higher taxonomic categories, ordinarily assign newly analysed taxa to the appropriate phylum or order. Second, we demonstrate that species-level assignments can be obtained by creating comprehensive COI profiles. A model COI profile, based upon the analysis of a single individual from each of 200 closely allied species of lepidopterans, was 100% successful in correctly identifying subsequent specimens. When fully developed, a COI identification system will provide a reliable, cost-effective and accessible solution to the current problem of species identification. Its assembly will also generate important new insights into the diversification of life and the rules of molecular evolution.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                25 March 2021
                : 1026
                : 1-15
                [1 ] Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China China Agricultural University Beijing China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Zhiqi Liu ( liuzhiqi@ 123456cau.edu.cn )

                Academic editor: S. Winterton

                Yaru Zhao, Ying Li, Zhiqi Liu

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: China Agricultural University 501100002365 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100002365
                Research Article
                Agriculture and Forestry
                Evolutionary biology
                Central Asia

                Animal science & Zoology

                taxonomy, identification key, faunistics, dusty lacewings, dna barcoding


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