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      The soundscape of the Anthropocene ocean

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          Abstract

          Oceans have become substantially noisier since the Industrial Revolution. Shipping, resource exploration, and infrastructure development have increased the anthrophony (sounds generated by human activities), whereas the biophony (sounds of biological origin) has been reduced by hunting, fishing, and habitat degradation. Climate change is affecting geophony (abiotic, natural sounds). Existing evidence shows that anthrophony affects marine animals at multiple levels, including their behavior, physiology, and, in extreme cases, survival. This should prompt management actions to deploy existing solutions to reduce noise levels in the ocean, thereby allowing marine animals to reestablish their use of ocean sound as a central ecological trait in a healthy ocean.

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          Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.

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            Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems.

            In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel ecosystems. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar ecosystems to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the California Current, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall ecosystem functioning and services upon which people and societies depend.
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              A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems.

              The management and conservation of the world's oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is unaffected by human influence and that a large fraction (41%) is strongly affected by multiple drivers. However, large areas of relatively little human impact remain, particularly near the poles. The analytical process and resulting maps provide flexible tools for regional and global efforts to allocate conservation resources; to implement ecosystem-based management; and to inform marine spatial planning, education, and basic research.
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                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                February 04 2021
                February 05 2021
                February 04 2021
                February 05 2021
                : 371
                : 6529
                : eaba4658
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Red Sea Research Centre (RSRC) and Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia.
                [2 ]Arctic Research Centre, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, C.F. Møllers Allé 8, DK-8000 Århus C, Denmark.
                [3 ]Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter EX4 4PS, UK.
                [4 ]School of Life Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia.
                [5 ]Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA.
                [6 ]Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos IFISC (CSIC-UIB), E07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
                [7 ]Centre for Marine Science & Technology, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia.
                [8 ]Australian Institute of Marine Science, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.
                [9 ]National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA.
                [10 ]Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.
                [11 ]School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK.
                [12 ]Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, UK.
                [13 ]Center for Acoustics Research and Education, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA.
                [14 ]Institute of Marine Science, Leigh Marine Laboratory, University of Auckland, P.O. Box 349, Warkworth 0941, New Zealand.
                [15 ]Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9505, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands.
                [16 ]Beneath the Waves, P.O. Box 126, Herndon, VA 20172, USA.
                [17 ]Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.
                [18 ]Schweigaardsgate 80, 0656 Oslo, Norway.
                [19 ]Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia.
                [20 ]Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
                Article
                10.1126/science.aba4658
                33542110
                0088143d-02d1-4db7-a547-e8f7c24666b9
                © 2021

                https://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

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