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      Worsening Renal Function during Index Hospitalization Does Not Predict Prognosis in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Patients

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Worsening renal function (WRF) predicts poor prognosis in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The effect of WRF in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether WRF during index hospitalization for HFpEF is associated with increased death or readmission for heart failure. Methods: National Veterans Affairs electronic medical data recorded between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2014, were screened to identify index hospitalizations for HFpEF using an iterative algorithm. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on changes in serum Cr (sCr) during this admission. WRF was defined as a rise in sCr ≥0.3 mg/dL. Group 1 had no evidence of WRF, group 2 had transient WRF, and group 3 had persistent WRF at the time of discharge. Results: A total of 10,902 patients with index hospitalizations for HFpEF were identified (mean age 72, 97% male). Twenty-nine percent had WRF during this hospital admission, with 48% showing recovery of sCr and 52% with no recovery at discharge. The mortality rate over a mean follow-up duration of 3.26 years was 72%. Compared to group 1, groups 2 and 3 showed no significant difference in risk of death from any cause (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.95 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 1.03] and 1.02 [95% CI: 0.93, 1.11], respectively), days hospitalized for any cause (incidence density ratio [IDR] = 1.01 [95% CI: 0.92, 1.11] and 1.01 [95% CI: 0.93, 1.11], respectively), or days hospitalized for heart failure (IDR = 0.94 [95% CI: 0.80, 1.10] and 0.94 [95% CI: 0.81, 1.09], respectively) in analyses adjusted for covariates affecting renal function and outcomes. Conclusions: While there is a high incidence of WRF during index hospitalizations for HFpEF, WRF is not associated with an increased risk of death or hospitalization. This suggests that WRF alone should not influence decisions regarding heart failure management.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Regional variation in patients and outcomes in the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) trial.

          Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction assigned to spironolactone did not achieve a significant reduction in the primary composite outcome (time to cardiovascular death, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for management of heart failure) compared with patients receiving placebo. In a post hoc analysis, an ≈4-fold difference was identified in this composite event rate between the 1678 patients randomized from Russia and Georgia compared with the 1767 enrolled from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina (the Americas).
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            Incidence, predictors at admission, and impact of worsening renal function among patients hospitalized with heart failure.

            The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of worsening renal function (WRF) among hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients, clinical predictors of WRF, and hospital outcomes associated with WRF. Impaired renal function is associated with poor outcomes among chronic HF patients. Chart reviews were performed on 1,004 consecutive patients admitted for a primary diagnosis of HF from 11 geographically diverse hospitals. Cox regression model analysis was used to identify independent predictors for WRF, defined as a rise in serum creatinine of >0.3 mg/dl (26.5 micromol/l). Bivariate analysis was used to determine associations of development of WRF with outcomes (in-hospital death, in-hospital complications, and length of stay). Among 1,004 HF patients studied, WRF developed in 27%. In the majority of cases, WRF occurred within three days of admission. History of HF or diabetes mellitus, admission creatinine > or =1.5 mg/dl (132.6 micromol/l), and systolic blood pressure >160 mm Hg were independently associated with higher risk of WRF. A point score based on these characteristics and their relative risk ratios predicted those at risk for WRF. Hospital deaths (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 7.5; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.9, 19.3), complications (ARR 2.1; CI 1.5, 3.0), and length of hospitalizations >10 days (ARR 3.2, CI 2.2, 4.9) were greater among patients with WRF. Worsening renal function occurs frequently among hospitalized HF patients and is associated with significantly worse outcomes. Clinical characteristics available at hospital admission can be used to identify patients at increased risk for developing WRF.
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              Worsening renal function and prognosis in heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Renal impairment is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF). Recently, reports suggest that worsening renal function (WRF) is another predictor of clinical outcome in HF. The present study was designed to establish the proportion of patients with HF that exhibits (WRF) and the associated risk for mortality and hospitalization by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic search of MEDLINE revealed 8 studies on the relationship between WRF and mortality in 18,634 patients with HF. The mortality risk associated with WRF was estimated using random-effects meta-analysis. WRF was defined as an increase in serum creatinine > or = 0.2 mg/dL or a corresponding decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate > or = 5 mL x min x 1.73 m2. Subgroup analysis included differentiation between in- and out-hospital patients, degree of WRF and time until end point occurrence. WRF developed in 4,734 (25%) patients and was associated with a higher risk for mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-1.82, P < .001) and hospitalization (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.04-1.62, P = .022). The severity of WRF was also associated with greater mortality. Patients with impaired renal function at baseline were more prone to progressive renal function loss. WRF predicts substantially higher rates of mortality and hospitalization in patients with HF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2021
                March 2021
                01 February 2021
                : 146
                : 2
                : 179-186
                Affiliations
                aMassachusetts Veterans Epidemiology and Research Information Center (MAVERIC), Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                bDivision of Aging, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                cDepartment of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                dDepartment of Medicine Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
                Author notes
                *Jacob Joseph, Boston Veterans Affairs Healthcare, Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology and Research Information Center, 1400 VFW Parkway, Cardiology Section (111), West Roxbury, MA 02132 (USA), jjoseph16@partners.org
                Article
                512431 Cardiology 2021;146:179–186
                10.1159/000512431
                33524973
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 8
                Categories
                HF and Intensive Care: Research Article

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