Introduction: Worsening renal function (WRF) predicts poor prognosis in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The effect of WRF in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether WRF during index hospitalization for HFpEF is associated with increased death or readmission for heart failure. Methods: National Veterans Affairs electronic medical data recorded between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2014, were screened to identify index hospitalizations for HFpEF using an iterative algorithm. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on changes in serum Cr (sCr) during this admission. WRF was defined as a rise in sCr ≥0.3 mg/dL. Group 1 had no evidence of WRF, group 2 had transient WRF, and group 3 had persistent WRF at the time of discharge. Results: A total of 10,902 patients with index hospitalizations for HFpEF were identified (mean age 72, 97% male). Twenty-nine percent had WRF during this hospital admission, with 48% showing recovery of sCr and 52% with no recovery at discharge. The mortality rate over a mean follow-up duration of 3.26 years was 72%. Compared to group 1, groups 2 and 3 showed no significant difference in risk of death from any cause (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.95 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 1.03] and 1.02 [95% CI: 0.93, 1.11], respectively), days hospitalized for any cause (incidence density ratio [IDR] = 1.01 [95% CI: 0.92, 1.11] and 1.01 [95% CI: 0.93, 1.11], respectively), or days hospitalized for heart failure (IDR = 0.94 [95% CI: 0.80, 1.10] and 0.94 [95% CI: 0.81, 1.09], respectively) in analyses adjusted for covariates affecting renal function and outcomes. Conclusions: While there is a high incidence of WRF during index hospitalizations for HFpEF, WRF is not associated with an increased risk of death or hospitalization. This suggests that WRF alone should not influence decisions regarding heart failure management.