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      Achievement of NKF/K-DOQI Recommended Target Values for Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Incident Hemodialysis Patients: Results of the FARO-2 Cohort

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          Background: Mineral Bone Disorders (MBD) is prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) patients and associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. The FARO-2 study evaluated the achievement of the NKF/K-DOQI guidelines on recommended target values for serum calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels on survival in incident HD patients. Methods: Data were collected by questionnaire from 568 incident HD patients followed prospectively over a 3-year period from 26 Italian dialysis units. The cumulative probability of time-to-death for CKD-MBD treatment characteristics was determined by the Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: Serum PTH levels (median values at 6 months vs. 36 months; 225 vs. 254 pg/ml), Ca (8.8 vs. 8.9 g/dl) and P (5.1 vs. 4.8 mg/dl) were not significantly different at 6 months versus follow-up. The majority of incident HD patients (60-70%) who were followed up for 36 months did not achieve the NKF/K-DOQI recommended target values. Survival rates were higher in patients on target for three parameters versus patients off target (survival at 24 months: at target 95.7% (95% CI: 84.0-98.9) versus not on target 71.1% (95% CI: 66.3-75.4, p < 0.01)). The 30.1% of patients on target for three MBD parameters at least once during the follow-up period had better survival rates compared to those not reaching these targets (survival at 24 months: at least once 88.0% (95% CI: 81.9-92.1); 67.7% (95% CI: 61.9-72.8, p < 0.01)). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that incident HD patients who achieved target levels (for three MBD parameters) for at least one visit have a lower risk of mortality.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

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            Survival of patients undergoing hemodialysis with paricalcitol or calcitriol therapy.

            Elevated calcium and phosphorus levels after therapy with injectable vitamin D for secondary hyperparathyroidism may accelerate vascular disease and hasten death in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Paricalcitol, a new vitamin D analogue, appears to lessen the elevations in serum calcium and phosphorus levels, as compared with calcitriol, the standard form of injectable vitamin D. We conducted a historical cohort study to compare the 36-month survival rate among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis who started to receive treatment with paricalcitol (29,021 patients) or calcitriol (38,378 patients) between 1999 and 2001. Crude and adjusted survival rates were calculated and stratified analyses were performed. A subgroup of 16,483 patients who switched regimens was also evaluated. The mortality rate among patients receiving paricalcitol was 3417 per 19,031 person-years (0.180 per person-year), as compared with 6805 per 30,471 person-years (0.223 per person-year) among those receiving calcitriol (P<0.001). The difference in survival was significant at 12 months and increased with time (P<0.001). In the adjusted analysis, the mortality rate was 16 percent lower (95 percent confidence interval, 10 to 21 percent) among paricalcitol-treated patients than among calcitriol-treated patients. A significant survival benefit was evident in 28 of 42 strata examined, and in no stratum was calcitriol favored. At 12 months, calcium and phosphorus levels had increased by 6.7 and 11.9 percent, respectively, in the paricalcitol group, as compared with 8.2 and 13.9 percent, respectively, in the calcitriol group (P<0.001). The two-year survival rate among patients who switched from calcitriol to paricalcitol was 73 percent, as compared with 64 percent among those who switched from paricalcitol to calcitriol (P=0.04). Patients who receive paricalcitol while undergoing long-term hemodialysis appear to have a significant survival advantage over those who receive calcitriol. A prospective, randomized study is critical to confirm these findings. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Predictors and consequences of altered mineral metabolism: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

              Altered mineral metabolism contributes to bone disease, cardiovascular disease, and other clinical problems in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study describes the recent status, significant predictors, and potential consequences of abnormal mineral metabolism in representative groups of hemodialysis facilities (N= 307) and patients (N= 17,236) participating in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) in the United States, Europe, and Japan from 1996 to 2001. Many patients fell out of the recommended guideline range for serum concentrations of phosphorus (8% of patients below lower target range, 52% of patients above upper target range), albumin-corrected calcium (9% below, 50% above), calcium-phosphorus product (44% above), and intact PTH (51% below, 27% above). All-cause mortality was significantly and independently associated with serum concentrations of phosphorus (RR 1.04 per 1 mg/dL, P= 0.0003), calcium (RR 1.10 per 1 mg/dL, P < 0.0001), calcium-phosphorus product (RR 1.02 per 5 mg(2)/dL(2), P= 0.0001), PTH (1.01 per 100 pg/dL, P= 0.04), and dialysate calcium (RR 1.13 per 1 mEq/L, P= 0.01). Cardiovascular mortality was significantly associated with the serum concentrations of phosphorus (RR 1.09, P < 0.0001), calcium (RR 1.14, P < 0.0001), calcium-phosphorus product (RR 1.05, P < 0.0001), and PTH (RR 1.02, P= 0.03). The adjusted rate of parathyroidectomy varied 4-fold across the DOPPS countries, and was significantly associated with baseline concentrations of phosphorus (RR 1.17, P < 0.0001), calcium (RR 1.58, P < 0.0001), calcium-phosphorus product (RR 1.11, P < 0.0001), PTH (RR 1.07, P < 0.0001), and dialysate calcium concentration (RR 0.57, P= 0.03). Overall, 52% of patients received some form of vitamin D therapy, with parenteral forms almost exclusively restricted to the United States. Vitamin D was potentially underused in up to 34% of patients with high PTH, and overused in up to 46% of patients with low PTH. Phosphorus binders (mostly calcium salts during the study period) were used by 81% of patients, with potential overuse in up to 77% patients with low serum phosphorus concentration, and potential underuse in up to 18% of patients with a high serum phosphorus concentration. This study expands our understanding of the relationship between altered mineral metabolism and outcomes and identifies several potential opportunities for improved practice in this area.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                November 2014
                27 September 2014
                : 38
                : 1
                : 37-45
                aRenal Division, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, San Paolo Hospital, bNephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplant, Fondazione Ca' Granda IRCCS-Policlinico, cDialysis Unit ‘Simone Martini', Milan, dDepartment of Nephrology, San Martino Hospital, Genoa, eTerritorial Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, ASL Cagliari, Cagliari, fUOC Nephrology Dialysis Ospedali Riuniti Marche Nord, Pesaro, gAbbVie SrL Italy, Campoverde, Latina, and hDipartimento di Scienze Cardiovascolari Respiratorie Nefrologiche e Geriatriche, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma, Italy
                Author notes
                *Mario Cozzolino, MD, PhD, Renal Division, Department of Health Sciences, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Via di Rudinì 8, IT-20142 Milan (Italy), E-Mail
                365386 Blood Purif 2014;38:37-45
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 9
                Original Paper


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