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      Temporal-Bone Measurements of the Maximum Equivalent Pressure Output and Maximum Stable Gain of a Light-Driven Hearing System That Mechanically Stimulates the Umbo :

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          Abstract

          <div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S1"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d8727477e132">Hypothesis</h5> <p id="P1">That maximum equivalent pressure output (MEPO) and maximum stable gain (MSG) measurements demonstrate high output and high gain margins in a Light Driven Hearing System (Earlens). </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S2"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d8727477e137">Background</h5> <p id="P2">The non-surgical Earlens consists of a light-activated balanced-armature Tympanic Lens (Lens) to drive the middle ear through direct umbo contact. The Lens is driven and powered by encoded pulses of light. In comparison to conventional hearing aids, the Earlens is designed to provide higher levels of output over a broader frequency range and a significantly higher MSG with the MEPO providing an important fitting guideline. </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S3"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d8727477e142">Methods</h5> <p id="P3">Four fresh human cadaver temporal bones were used to measure MEPO directly. To calculate MEPO and MSG, we measured the pressure close to the eardrum and stapes velocity for sound drive and light drive using the Earlens. </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S4"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d8727477e147">Results</h5> <p id="P4">The baseline sound-driven measurements are consistent with previous reports. The average MEPO (N=4) varies from 116 to 128 dB SPL in the 0.7 to 10 kHz range, with the peak occurring at 7.6 kHz. From 0.1–0.7 kHz, it varies from 83 to 121 dB SPL. For the average MSG, a broad minimum of about 10 dB occurs in the 1–4 kHz range, above which it rises as high as 42 dB at 7.6 kHz. From 0.2 to 1 kHz, the MSG decreases linearly from about 40 dB to 10 dB. </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S5"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d8727477e152">Conclusion</h5> <p id="P5">With high output and high gain margins, the Earlens may offer broader spectrum amplification for treatment of mild to severe hearing impairment. </p> </div>

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          Most cited references 11

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          Human middle-ear sound transfer function and cochlear input impedance.

          The middle-ear pressure gain, defined as the ear canal sound pressure to cochlear vestibule pressure gain, GME, and the ear canal sound pressure to stapes footplate velocity transfer function, SVTF, simultaneously measured in 12 fresh human temporal bones for the 0.05 to 10 kHz frequency range are reported. The mean GME magnitude reached 23.5 dB at 1.2 kHz with a slope of approximately 6 dB/octave from 0.1 to 1.2 kHz and -6 dB/octave above 1.2 kHz. From 0.1 to 0.5 kHz, the mean GME phase angle was 51 degrees, rolling off at -78 degrees /octave above this frequency. The mean SVTF magnitude reached a maximum of 0.33 mm s(-1)/Pa at 1.0 kHz with nearly the same shape in magnitude and phase angle as the mean GME. The ratio of GME and SVTF provide the first direct measurements of Z(c) in human ears. The mean Z(c) was virtually flat with a value of 21.1 acoustic GOmega MKS between 0.1 and 5.0 kHz. Above 5 kHz, the mean Z(c) increased to a maximum value of 49.9 GOmega at 6.7 kHz. The mean Z(c) angle was near 0 degrees from 0.5 to 5.0 kHz, decreasing below 0.5 kHz and above 5 kHz with peaks and valleys.
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            Measurements of human middle ear forward and reverse acoustics: implications for otoacoustic emissions.

             Sunil Puria (2003)
            Middle and inner ears from human cadaver temporal bones were stimulated in the forward direction by an ear-canal sound source, and in the reverse direction by an inner-ear sound source. For each stimulus type, three variables were measured: (a) Pec--ear-canal pressure with a probe-tube microphone within 3 mm of the eardrum, (b) Vst--stapes velocity with a laser interferometer, and (c) Pv--vestibule pressure with a hydrophone. From these variables, the forward middle-ear pressure gain (M1), the cochlear input impedance (Zc), the reverse middle-ear pressure gain (M2), and the reverse middle-ear impedance (M3) are directly obtained for the first time from the same preparation. These measurements can be used to fully characterize the middle ear as a two-port system. Presently, the effect of the middle ear on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) is quantified by calculating the roundtrip middle-ear pressure gain Gme(RT) as the product of M1 and M2. In the 2-6.8 kHz region, absolute value(Gme(RT)) decreases with a slope of -22 dB/oct, while OAEs (both click evoked and distortion products) tend to be independent of frequency; this suggests a steep slope in vestibule pressure from 2 kHz to at least 4 kHz for click evoked OAEs and to at least 6.8 kHz for distortion product OAEs. Contrary to common assumptions, measurements indicate that the emission generator mechanism is frequency dependent. Measurements are also used to estimate the reflectance of basally traveling waves at the stapes, and apically generated nonlinear reflections within the vestibule.
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              Tympanic‐Membrane Vibrations in Human Cadaver Ears Studied by Time‐Averaged Holography

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Otology & Neurotology
                Otology & Neurotology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1531-7129
                2016
                February 2016
                : 37
                : 2
                : 160-166
                Article
                10.1097/MAO.0000000000000941
                4712733
                26756140
                © 2016

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