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      Latest Advances of Long Non-Coding RNA SNHG5 in Human Cancers

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          Abstract

          Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been potent regulators in the initiation and development of human cancers regarding their biological roles in the modulation of dosage compensation effect, epigenetics and cell differentiation. Recently, aberrant expression of lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 5 (SNHG5) has been observed in various solid tumors, which was intently correlated with tumor range, metastasis, pathological stage and prognosis. Additional mechanical investigation disclosed that SNHG5 was involved in multiple cellular activities, including proliferation, migration, invasion, cell-cycle, apoptosis and autophagy, via targeting miRNAs, signaling pathways and other biological molecules or proteins. In this review, we summarized the latest advances made towards understanding the roles of SNHG5 in human cancers and further discussed potential methods that could be adopted for clinical interventions.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The lncRNA SNHG5/miR-32 axis regulates gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration by targeting KLF4

          Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in cellular processes, including the development, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. We have demonstrated in a prior study that small nucleolar RNA host gene 5 (SNHG5) is dysregulated in gastric cancer (GC). To further explore the underlying mechanisms of SNGH5 function in the development of GC, in this study, we screened the microRNAs interacting with SNHG5 and elucidated their roles in GC. We showed that SNHG5 contains a putative miR-32-binding site and that deletion of this site abolishes the responsiveness to miR-32. Suppression of SNHG5 expression by miR-32 was found to be Argonaute (Ago)2-dependent. Immunoprecipitation showed that SNHG5 could be pulled down from the Ago-2 complex with miR-32. Furthermore, it was reported that Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a target gene of miR-32. In agreement with SNHG5 being a decoy for miR-32, we showed that KLF4 suppression by miR-32 could be partially rescued by SNHG5 overexpression, whereas miR-32 mimic rescued SNHG5 overexpression-mediated suppression of GC cell migration. In addition, we identified a negative correlation between the expression of SNHG5 and miR-32 in GC tissues. Furthermore, KLF4 expression was significantly downregulated in GC specimens, and a negative correlation between miR-32 and KLF4 expression and a positive correlation between KLF4 and SNHG5 expression levels were detected. Overall, this study demonstrated, for the first time, that the SNHG5/miR-32/KLF4 axis functions as an important player in GC cell migration and potentially contributes to the improvement of GC diagnosis and therapy.-Zhao, L., Han, T., Li, Y., Sun, J., Zhang, S., Liu, Y., Shan, B., Zheng D., Shi, J. The lncRNA SNHG5/miR-32 axis regulates gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration by targeting KLF4.
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            Long non-coding RNA SNHG5 suppresses gastric cancer progression by trapping MTA2 in the cytosol.

             W L Zhao,  H Guo,  B. Zhou (2016)
            Recently, intriguing new roles for some small nucleolar RNA host genes (SNHGs) in cancer have emerged. In the present study, a panel of SNHGs was profiled to detect aberrantly expressed SNHGs in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of SNHG5 was significantly downregulated in GC and was significantly associated with the formation of a tumor embolus and with the tumor, node and metastasis stage. SNHG5 was a long non-coding RNA, which was a class of non-coding RNA transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. SNHG5 suppressed GC cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, SNHG5 exerted its function through interacting with MTA2, preventing the translocation of MTA2 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. SNHG5 overexpression led to significant increases in the acetylation levels of histone H3 and p53, indicating that SNHG5 might affect acetylation by trapping MTA2 in the cytosol, thereby interfering with the formation of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex. This study is the first to demonstrate that SNHG5 is a critical and powerful regulator that is involved in GC progression through trapping MTA2 in the cytosol. These results imply that SNHG5 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of GC.
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              CCAT1: a pivotal oncogenic long non-coding RNA in human cancers.

              Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) compose a group of non-protein-coding RNAs - more than 200 nucleotides in length. Recent studies have shown that lncRNAs play important roles in different cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. Deregulation of lncRNAs has been widely reported in human tumours, in which they are able to function as either oncogenes (on the one hand) or tumour suppressor genes (on the other). Deregulation of CCAT1 (colon cancer-associated transcript-1), an oncogenic lncRNA, has been documented in different types of malignancy, such as gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this regard, enforced expression of CCAT1 exerts potent tumorigenic effects by promoting cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Recent evidence has also shown that CCAT1 may serve as a prognostic cancer biomarker. In this review, we provide an overview of current evidence relating to the role and biological function of CCAT1 in tumour development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Onco Targets Ther
                Onco Targets Ther
                OTT
                ott
                OncoTargets and therapy
                Dove
                1178-6930
                01 July 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 6393-6403
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University , Changzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wei Guan No. 185, Juqian Street, Changzhou, Jiangsu213003, People’s Republic of China Email guanwei1402@163.com
                Article
                252750
                10.2147/OTT.S252750
                7342554
                © 2020 Han et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 48, Pages: 11
                Funding
                This study was funded by the Changzhou Health and Family Planning Commission Youth Talent Science and Technology Project (WZ201811).
                Categories
                Review

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                therapeutic target, human cancers, biomarker, lncrna, snhg5

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