Previous studies have reported a correlation between vitamin D levels and seasonality in healthy populations. However, there are few studies on the seasonal variation in vitamin D levels and its relationship with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to investigate seasonal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and the associations between these vitamin D concentrations and HbA1c levels in T2DM patients in Hebei, China.
A cross-sectional study of 1,074 individuals with T2DM was conducted from May 2018 to September 2021. Levels of 25(OH)D in these patients were assessed based on both sex and season, and relevant clinical or laboratory variables that could impact vitamin D status were also considered.
In the T2DM patient cohort, the mean blood 25(OH)D levels were 17.05 ng/mL. A total of 698 patients (65.0%) had insufficient serum 25(OH)D levels. The vitamin D deficiency rates were significantly higher in the winter and spring compared to the autumn ( P < 0.05), indicating that seasonal fluctuations can have a significant impact on 25(OH)D levels. The levels of vitamin D inadequacy were highest in the winter (74%), and females were more likely than males to be deficient (73.4% vs. 59.5%, P < 0.001). In comparison to the winter and spring, both males and females showed higher 25(OH)D levels in the summer ( P < 0.001). HbA1c levels were 8.9% higher in those with vitamin D deficiencies than in nondeficient patients ( P < 0.001). HbA1c and vitamin D levels were negatively correlated ( r = −0.119, P < 0.001).