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      Periploca forrestii Saponin Ameliorates Murine CFA-Induced Arthritis by Suppressing Cytokine Production

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          Periploca forrestii Schltr. has been used as a Chinese folk medicine due to its versatile pharmacological effects such as promoting wounds and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the antiarthritic activity of Periploca forrestii saponin (PFS) and its active compound Periplocin has still not been demonstrated. Here, we evaluated the antiarthritic effects of PFS in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats by intragastric administration at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activities of Periplocin were also examined in LPS-induced AIA splenocytes and synoviocytes. PFS significantly ameliorated joint swelling; inhibited bone erosion in joints; lowered levels of IL-6 and TGF- β1 in AIA rat splenocyte; and reduced joint protein expression levels of phospho-STAT3 and IKK α. Using LPS-induced AIA splenocytes, we demonstrate that Periplocin suppressed the key proinflammatory cytokines levels of IL-6, IFN- γ, TGF- β1, and IL-13 and IL-22 and transcription factor levels of T-bet, GATA3, and C-Jun genes. Periplocin also suppressed LPS-induced cytokine secretion from synoviocytes. Our study highlights the antiarthritic activity of PFS and its derived Periplocin and the underlying mechanisms. These results provide a strong rationale for further testing and validation of the use of Periploca forrestii Schltr. as an alternative modality for the treatment of RA.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Extracellular proteolysis mediates tissue homeostasis. In cancer, altered proteolysis leads to unregulated tumor growth, tissue remodeling, inflammation, tissue invasion, and metastasis. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis. Recent technological developments have markedly advanced our understanding of MMPs as modulators of the tumor microenvironment. In addition to their role in extracellular matrix turnover and cancer cell migration, MMPs regulate signaling pathways that control cell growth, inflammation, or angiogenesis and may even work in a nonproteolytic manner. These aspects of MMP function are reorienting our approaches to cancer therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common inflammatory arthritis and is a major cause of disability. It existed in early Native American populations several thousand years ago but might not have appeared in Europe until the 17th century. Early theories on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis focused on autoantibodies and immune complexes. T-cell-mediated antigen-specific responses, T-cell-independent cytokine networks, and aggressive tumour-like behaviour of rheumatoid synovium have also been implicated. More recently, the contribution of autoantibodies has returned to the forefront. Based on the pathogenic mechanisms, specific therapeutic interventions can be designed to suppress synovial inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.
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              Serum Levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17, and IL-18 in Patients With Active Psoriasis and Correlation With Disease Severity

              Recent progress in the understanding of psoriasis has shown that the regulation of local and systemic cytokines plays an important role in its pathogenesis. The most often used psoriasis score is the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). A simple laboratory test from a blood sample would be an attractive, patient-independent, and observer-independent marker of disease severity. To this end, we evaluated the association of serum levels of some proinflammatory cytokines in vivo and their correlation with severity of psoriasis. The serum levels of cytokines levels were determined with the use of the ELISA method. All mean values except IL-17 levels of patients were significantly higher than those of controls. There was a significant correlation between serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17, and IL-18, and severity of the disease. Psoriasis can be described as a T-cell-mediated disease, with a complex role for a variety of cytokines, which has led to the development of new immunomodulatory therapies. In this study, serum TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in active psoriatic patients than in controls. Furthermore, high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-18 correlated with the clinical severity and activity of psoriasis, and those measurements of serum levels of these cytokines may be objective parameters for the disease severity.

                Author and article information

                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                12 December 2016
                : 2016
                1Biotechnology College, Guilin Medical University, No. 109 North 2nd Huan Cheng Road, Guilin, Guangxi 541004, China
                2Pharmaceutical College, Guilin Medical University, No. 109 North 2nd Huan Cheng Road, Guilin, Guangxi 541004, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Nona Janikashvili

                Copyright © 2016 Yingqin Liu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81260462
                Award ID: 81460474
                Funded by: Guangxi Natural Science Foundation China
                Award ID: AA139104
                Research Article



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