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      Cambios radiográficos del penacho de la falange distal de las manos, en pacientes con artritis reumatoide. Revisión sistemática Translated title: Radiographic changes in the distal phalanx tuft of the hands in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. Systematic review

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar en radiografía simple los hallazgos anormales del penacho de la falange distal de los dedos de la mano (PFDM) asociados a la artritis reumatoide (AR) en adultos. Métodos: Se desarrolló una revisión sistemática siguiendo los parámetros de las guías PRISMA en las bases de datos: Medline, Embase, Bireme, Scielo, Google Scholar, entre otras, incluyendo como resultados primarios las alteraciones del PFDM (erosiones, resorción, esclerosis y proliferación) detectadas por radiografía simple en adultos con AR. La prevalencia de los hallazgos radiográficos fue sintetizada usando el modelo de efectos fijos de Mantel-Haenszel. Las asociaciones estadísticas (según el tipo de estudio) se expresaron en términos de riesgo relativo (RR) u odds ratio (OR), con sus respectivos intervalos de confianza y valores p. Resultados: Nueve estudios observacionales fueron incluidos; la prevalencia de esclerosis del PFDM fue del 28,3% (IC 95%: 0,23-0,34; p< 0,001), y un valor I2 = 75%. De otro lado, la prevalencia de resorción del PFDM fue del 1,8% (IC 95%: 0,006-0,05; p < 0,001), con un I2 = 0%. Ningún estudio reportó proliferación o erosiones del PFDM. Conclusiones: La esclerosis del PFDM es la alteración radiográfica más frecuente de esta zona en pacientes con AR, sin embargo, no constituye un hallazgo patognomónico de esta entidad, por tanto, nuevos estudios con mayor solidez metodológica son necesarios para esclarecer esta asociación. Finalmente, la proliferación, erosiones o resorción del PFDM no son lesiones radiográficas típicas de individuos con AR.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the abnormal findings in the distal phalanx tuft of the hands (DPTH) in plain radiographs associated with the presence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adults subjects. Methods: A systematic review was performed following the PRISMA guidelines using databases, such as, Medline, Embase, Bireme, Scielo, and Google Scholar. The main changes in the DPTH included erosion, resorption, sclerosis, and proliferation detected on plain radiographs in adults with RA. Prevalence of radiographic findings was analysed using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed effects model. Statistical associations (according to study type) were expressed as relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) with their respective confidence intervals (CI) and p values. Results: A total of 9 studies were included, in which sclerosis prevalence in the DPTH was 28.3% (95% CI: 0.23-0.34; P<.001, and I2 value = 75%). Resorption prevalence in the DPTH was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.006-0.05; P<.001, and I2 value = 0%). No study reported proliferation or erosions in DPTH. Conclusion: Sclerosis in the DPTH is the most frequent radiographic alteration in patients with RA. However, it cannot be considered a pathognomonic finding of that condition, the-refore new studies with a more solid methodological structure are needed to clarify this association. Finally, proliferation, erosion or resorption on the DPTH are not typical radiographic findings in subjects with RA.

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          Where tendons and ligaments meet bone: attachment sites ('entheses') in relation to exercise and/or mechanical load.

          Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure-function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue sides of the junction. Particular attention is paid to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to exploring the relationship between entheses and exercise. The molecular parameters indicative of adaptation to mechanical stress are evaluated, and the basis on which entheses are classified is explained. The application of the 'enthesis organ' concept (a collection of tissues adjacent to the enthesis itself, which jointly serve the common function of stress dissipation) to understanding enthesopathies is considered and novel roles of adipose tissue at entheses are reviewed. A distinction is made between different locations of fat at entheses, and possible functions include space-filling and proprioception. The basic anchorage role of entheses is considered in detail and comparisons are explored between entheses and other biological 'anchorage' sites. The ability of entheses for self-repair is emphasized and a range of enthesopathies common in sport are reviewed (e.g. tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, jumper's knee, plantar fasciitis and Achilles insertional tendinopathies). Attention is drawn to the degenerative, rather than inflammatory, nature of most enthesopathies in sport. The biomechanical factors contributing to the development of enthesopathies are reviewed and the importance of considering the muscle-tendon-bone unit as a whole is recognized. Bony spur formation is assessed in relation to other changes at entheses which parallel those in osteoarthritic synovial joints.
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            Radiological hand involvement in systemic sclerosis.

            The osteoarticular and soft tissue structures of the hand may be involved in systemic sclerosis (SSc), causing functional disability. To assess radiological hand features in a cross sectional study of SSc patients and in controls. Hand radiology was done systematically in patients with SSc seen over a two year period and in unselected controls with rheumatoid arthritis or digital trauma. Two independent investigators blind to the diagnosis carried out the radiological assessment. 120 consecutive SSc patients (median (range) age, 56.5 (20 to 90) years; disease duration, 6 (0 to 42) years) and 42 controls (22 with rheumatoid arthritis and 20 with digital trauma) were studied. Radiological abnormalities in SSc patients included erosion (21%), joint space narrowing (28%), arthritis (defined by concomitant erosion and joint space narrowing) (18%), radiological demineralisation (23%), acro-osteolysis (22%), flexion contracture (27%), and calcinosis (23%). In univariate and multivariate analysis, the resorption of distal phalanges was significantly associated with digital ulcers, extra-articular calcification, and pulmonary arterial hypertension; flexion contracture was associated with the diffuse cutaneous form and high HAQ (Health Assessment Questionnaire) disability score. Calcinosis was most often seen in patients with digital ulcers, but was similarly observed in patients with the diffuse or limited cutaneous subtypes. Flexion contracture was associated with disability and occurred in patients with the diffuse cutaneous subtype of SSc, consistent with the tendency towards fibrosis and functional impairment of this subtype. Calcinosis and acro-osteolysis were both associated with vascular complications, highlighting a potential role of vascular injury in such lesions.
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              Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement (Reprinted from Annals of Internal Medicine)

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rcre
                Revista Colombiana de Reumatología
                Rev.Colomb.Reumatol.
                Asociación Colombiana de Reumatología (Bogotá, Distrito Capital, Colombia )
                0121-8123
                March 2017
                : 24
                : 1
                : 32-39
                Affiliations
                [1] Bogotá orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Colombia orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento de Radiología e Imágenes Diagnósticas Colombia
                Article
                S0121-81232017000100032
                10.1016/j.rcreu.2016.10.004
                00c18585-6026-477f-940d-2f14197622c5

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 22 April 2016
                : 24 October 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 8
                Product

                SciELO Colombia


                Arthritis rheumatoid,Radiography,Finger phalanges hand,Artritis reumatoide Radiografía,Falanges de los dedos de la mano

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