1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      A Survey of Analytical Techniques for Noroviruses

      1 , * , 2 , *

      Foods

      MDPI

      human norovirus, detection, review

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          As the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, human noroviruses (HuNoVs) have caused around 685 million cases of infection and nearly $60 billion in losses every year. Despite their highly contagious nature, an effective vaccine for HuNoVs has yet to become commercially available. Therefore, rapid detection and subtyping of noroviruses is crucial for preventing viral spread. Over the past half century, there has been monumental progress in the development of techniques for the detection and analysis of noroviruses. However, currently no rapid, portable assays are available to detect and subtype infectious HuNoVs. The purpose of this review is to survey and present different analytical techniques for the detection and characterization of noroviruses.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 173

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          An overview of foodborne pathogen detection: in the perspective of biosensors.

          Food safety is a global health goal and the foodborne diseases take a major crisis on health. Therefore, detection of microbial pathogens in food is the solution to the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety. For this reason, a comprehensive literature survey has been carried out aiming to give an overview in the field of foodborne pathogen detection. Conventional and standard bacterial detection methods such as culture and colony counting methods, immunology-based methods and polymerase chain reaction based methods, may take up to several hours or even a few days to yield an answer. Obviously this is inadequate, and recently many researchers are focusing towards the progress of rapid methods. Although new technologies like biosensors show potential approaches, further research and development is essential before biosensors become a real and reliable choice. New bio-molecular techniques for food pathogen detection are being developed to improve the biosensor characteristics such as sensitivity and selectivity, also which is rapid, reliable, effective and suitable for in situ analysis. This paper not only offers an overview in the area of microbial pathogen detection but it also describes the conventional methods, analytical techniques and recent developments in food pathogen detection, identification and quantification, with an emphasis on biosensors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Expression, self-assembly, and antigenicity of the Norwalk virus capsid protein.

            Norwalk virus capsid protein was produced by expression of the second and third open reading frames of the Norwalk virus genome, using a cell-free translation system and baculovirus recombinants. Analysis of the expressed products showed that the second open reading frame encodes a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 58,000 (58K protein) and that this protein self-assembles to form empty viruslike particles similar to native capsids in size and appearance. The antigenicity of these particles was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of paired serum samples from volunteers who developed illness following Norwalk virus challenge. These particles also induced high levels of Norwalk virus-specific serum antibody in laboratory animals following parenteral inoculation. A minor 34K protein was also found in infected insect cells. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N terminus of the 34K protein indicated that the 34K protein was a cleavage product of the 58K protein. The availability of large amounts of recombinant Norwalk virus particles will allow the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable tests for the diagnosis of Norwalk virus infection as well as the implementation of structural studies.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States.

               L Scharff (2011)
              The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently revised their estimates for the annual number of foodborne illnesses; 48 million Americans suffer from domestically acquired foodborne illness associated with 31 identified pathogens and a broad category of unspecified agents. Consequently, economic studies based on the previous estimates are now obsolete. This study was conducted to provide improved and updated estimates of the cost of foodborne illness by adding a replication of the 2011 CDC model to existing cost-of-illness models. The basic cost-of-illness model includes economic estimates for medical costs, productivity losses, and illness-related mortality (based on hedonic value-of-statistical-life studies). The enhanced cost-of-illness model replaces the productivity loss estimates with a more inclusive pain, suffering, and functional disability measure based on monetized quality-adjusted life year estimates. Costs are estimated for each pathogen and a broader class of unknown pathogens. The addition of updated cost data and improvements to methodology enhanced the performance of each existing economic model. Uncertainty in these models was characterized using Monte Carlo simulations in @Risk version 5.5. With this model, the average cost per case of foodborne illness was $1,626 (90% credible interval [CI], $607 to $3,073) for the enhanced cost-of-illness model and $1,068 (90% CI, $683 to $1,646) for the basic model. The resulting aggregated annual cost of illness was $77.7 billion (90% CI, $28.6 to $144.6 billion) and $51.0 billion (90% CI, $31.2 to $76.1 billion) for the enhanced and basic models, respectively.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Foods
                Foods
                foods
                Foods
                MDPI
                2304-8158
                10 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 9
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
                [2 ]Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lingling@ 123456iastate.edu (L.L.); mdmoore@ 123456umass.edu (M.D.M.)
                Article
                foods-09-00318
                10.3390/foods9030318
                7142446
                32164213
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                human norovirus, detection, review

                Comments

                Comment on this article