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      Cohabitation with a Sick Cage Mate: Effects on Ascitic Form of Ehrlich Tumor Growth and Macrophage Activity

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          The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of mice cohabitation with a sick conspecific cage mate on peritoneal macrophage activity and on resistance to Ehrlich tumor growth. Female mice housed in pairs were divided into control and experimental groups. One mouse of each control pair was inoculated with NaCl (0.1 ml/10 g) intraperitoneally and the other, called ‘companion of healthy partner’ (CHP), was kept undisturbed. One animal of each experimental pair of mice was inoculated with 5.0 × 10<sup>6</sup> Ehrlich tumor cells intraperitoneally and the other, the subject of this study, was called ‘companion of sick partner’ (CSP). Peritoneal macrophages were removed from CSP and CHP mice to analyze resident macrophage activity (experiment 1), macrophage activity after Mycobacterium bovis (experiment 2) or Ehrlich tumor cells (experiment 3) in vivo inoculations. The resistance of CSP and CHP mice to Ehrlich tumor growth was also analyzed (experiment 4). Differences between groups were not found on resident macrophage activity. However, Onco-BCG- and Ehrlich tumor-activated macrophages from CSP mice presented a decreased intensity and percentage of phagocytosis and an increased respiratory burst in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus stimulation in vitro. CSP animals at the same time displayed a decreased resistance to Ehrlich tumor growth. These data were discussed in light of a possible psychological stress effect imposed by the housing condition on mice’s peritoneal macrophage activity and, as a consequence, on their resistance to Ehrlich tumor growth.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Macrophage receptors and immune recognition.

          Macrophages express a broad range of plasma membrane receptors that mediate their interactions with natural and altered-self components of the host as well as a range of microorganisms. Recognition is followed by surface changes, uptake, signaling, and altered gene expression, contributing to homeostasis, host defense, innate effector mechanisms, and the induction of acquired immunity. This review covers recent studies of selected families of structurally defined molecules, studies that have improved understanding of ligand discrimination in the absence of opsonins and differential responses by macrophages and related myeloid cells.
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            The relationship of depression and stressors to immunological assays: a meta-analytic review.

            This is a broad meta-analysis of the relations of both depression and stressors to immunological assays. The number of study samples (greater than 180) and measures (greater than 40) is much more extensive than any so far. Analyses are done by both fixed and random effects. By a fixed-effects analysis, both major depression and naturally occurring acute stressors are associated with (1) an overall leukocytosis, (2) mild reductions in absolute NK-cell counts and relative T-cell proportions, (3) marginal increases in CD4/CD8 ratios, and (4) moderate decreases in T- and NK-cell function. However, the degree of heterogeneity of the studies' results raises questions about their robustness. Therefore, we also did the first random effects analysis to estimate what is likely to appear in future studies. For depression, the analysis showed the immunological correlates included (1) an overall leukocytosis, manifesting as a relative neutrophilia and lymphoenia; (2) increased CD4/CD8 ratios; (3) increased circulating haptoglobin, PGE(2), and IL-6 levels; (4) reduced NK-cell cytotoxicity; and (5) reduced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. For stressors, the random effects analysis showed that future studies are likely to find the following effects: (1) an overall leukocytosis, manifesting as an absolute lymphocytosis; (2) alterations in cytotoxic lymphocyte levels, CD4/CD8 ratios, and natural killer cell cytotoxicity with the direction of change depending on the chronicity of the stressor; (3) a relative reduction of T-cell levels; (3) increased EBV antibody titers; (4) reduced lymphocyte proliferative response and proportion of IL-2r bearing cells following mitogenic stimulation; and (5) increased leukocyte adhesiveness. The random-effects analysis revealed that for both major depression and naturally occurring stressors the following effects are shared: leukocytosis, increased CD4/CD8 ratios, reduced proliferative response to mitogen, and reduced NK cell cytotoxicity. The implications for these findings for disease susceptibility and the pathophysiology of these conditions is discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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              Autonomic innervation and regulation of the immune system (1987-2007).

              Since 1987, only a few neuroanatomical studies have been conducted to identify the origin of innervation for the immune system. These studies demonstrated that all primary and secondary immune organs receive a substantial sympathetic innervation from sympathetic postganglionic neurons. Neither the thymus nor spleen receive any sensory neural innervation; however, there is evidence that lymph nodes and bone marrow may be innervated by sensory neurons located in dorsal root ganglia. There is no neuroanatomical evidence for a parasympathetic or vagal nerve supply to any immune organ. Thus, the primary pathway for the neural regulation of immune function is provided by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and its main neurotransmitter, norepinephrine (NE). Activation of the SNS primarily inhibits the activity of cells associated with the innate immune system, while it either enhances or inhibits the activity of cells associated with the acquired/adaptive immune system. Innate immune cells express both alpha and beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes, while T and B lymphocytes express adrenergic receptors of the beta2 subtype exclusively, except for murine Th2 cells that lack expression of any subtype. Via these adrenergic receptors, NE is able to regulate the level of immune cell activity by initiating a change in the level of cellular activity, which often involves a change in the level of gene expression for cytokines and antibodies.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                May 2008
                17 March 2008
                : 14
                : 6
                : 297-303
                Laboratory of Applied Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
                121284 Neuroimmunomodulation 2007;14:297–303
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 41, Pages: 7
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