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      IL1- and TGFβ-Nox4 signaling, oxidative stress and DNA damage response are shared features of replicative, oncogene-induced, and drug-induced paracrine ‘Bystander senescence’

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          Abstract

          Many cancers arise at sites of infection and inflammation. Cellular senescence, a permanent state of cell cycle arrest that provides a barrier against tumorigenesis, is accompanied by elevated proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1, IL6, IL8 and TNFα. Here we demonstrate that media conditioned by cells undergoing any of the three main forms of senescence, i.e. replicative, oncogene- and drug-induced, contain high levels of IL1, IL6, and TGFb capable of inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage response (DDR). Persistent cytokine signaling and activated DDR evoke senescence in normal bystander cells, accompanied by activation of the JAK/STAT, TGFβ/SMAD and IL1/NFκB signaling pathways. Whereas inhibition of IL6/STAT signaling had no effect on DDR induction in bystander cells, inhibition of either TGFβ/SMAD or IL1/NFκB pathway resulted in decreased ROS production and reduced DDR in bystander cells. Simultaneous inhibition of both TGFβ/SMAD and IL1/NFκB pathways completely suppressed DDR indicating that IL1 and TGFβ cooperate to induce and/or maintain bystander senescence. Furthermore, the observed IL1- and TGFβ-induced expression of NAPDH oxidase Nox4 indicates a mechanistic link between the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and DNA damage signaling as a feature shared by development of all major forms of paracrine bystander senescence.

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          Persistent DNA damage signaling triggers senescence-associated inflammatory cytokine secretion

          Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by stably arresting the proliferation of damaged cells1. Paradoxically, senescent cells also secrete factors that alter tissue microenvironments2. The pathways regulating this secretion are unknown. We show that damaged human cells develop persistent chromatin lesions bearing hallmarks of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which initiate increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Cytokine secretion occurred only after establishment of persistent DNA damage signaling, usually associated with senescence, not after transient DNA damage responses (DDR). Initiation and maintenance of this cytokine response required the DDR proteins ATM, NBS1 and CHK2, but not the cell cycle arrest enforcers p53 and pRb. ATM was also essential for IL-6 secretion during oncogene-induced senescence and by damaged cells that bypass senescence. Further, DDR activity and IL-6 were elevated in human cancers, and ATM-depletion suppressed the ability of senescent cells to stimulate IL-6-dependent cancer cell invasiveness. Thus, in addition to orchestrating cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair, a novel and important role of the DDR is to allow damaged cells to communicate their compromised state to the surrounding tissue.
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            Inflamm-aging. An evolutionary perspective on immunosenescence.

            In this paper we extend the "network theory of aging," and we argue that a global reduction in the capacity to cope with a variety of stressors and a concomitant progressive increase in proinflammatory status are major characteristics of the aging process. This phenomenon, which we will refer to as "inflamm-aging," is provoked by a continuous antigenic load and stress. On the basis of evolutionary studies, we also argue that the immune and the stress responses are equivalent and that antigens are nothing other than particular types of stressors. We also propose to return macrophage to its rightful place as central actor not only in the inflammatory response and immunity, but also in the stress response. The rate of reaching the threshold of proinflammatory status over which diseases/disabilities ensue and the individual capacity to cope with and adapt to stressors are assumed to be complex traits with a genetic component. Finally, we argue that the persistence of inflammatory stimuli over time represents the biologic background (first hit) favoring the susceptibility to age-related diseases/disabilities. A second hit (absence of robust gene variants and/or presence of frail gene variants) is likely necessary to develop overt organ-specific age-related diseases having an inflammatory pathogenesis, such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and diabetes. Following this perspective, several paradoxes of healthy centenarians (increase of plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins, and coagulation factors) are illustrated and explained. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of inflammation devoted to the neutralization of dangerous/harmful agents early in life and in adulthood become detrimental late in life in a period largely not foreseen by evolution, according to the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging.
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              Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a.

              Oncogenic ras can transform most immortal rodent cells to a tumorigenic state. However, transformation of primary cells by ras requires either a cooperating oncogene or the inactivation of tumor suppressors such as p53 or p16. Here we show that expression of oncogenic ras in primary human or rodent cells results in a permanent G1 arrest. The arrest induced by ras is accompanied by accumulation of p53 and p16, and is phenotypically indistinguishable from cellular senescence. Inactivation of either p53 or p16 prevents ras-induced arrest in rodent cells, and E1A achieves a similar effect in human cells. These observations suggest that the onset of cellular senescence does not simply reflect the accumulation of cell divisions, but can be prematurely activated in response to an oncogenic stimulus. Negation of ras-induced senescence may be relevant during multistep tumorigenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                ImpactJ
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Impact Journals LLC
                1945-4589
                December 2012
                30 December 2012
                : 4
                : 12
                : 932-951
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Genome Integrity, Institute of Molecular Genetics, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
                2 Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Zdenek Hodny, MD/PhD; hodny@ 123456img.cas.cz
                Jiri Bartek, MD/PhD; jb@ 123456cancer.dk
                Article
                10.18632/aging.100520
                3615160
                23385065
                00f243e2-bc6a-4b85-9b1b-4dfac4776538
                Copyright: © 2012 Hubackova et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                History
                : 4 December 2012
                : 19 December 2012
                Categories
                Research Paper

                Cell biology
                senescence-associated secretome,dna damage response,cytokines,jak/stat3,tgfβ,nfκb,il6,il1β,nox4,autocrine and paracrine signaling,tumor microenvironment

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