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      Pinocembrin Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Vascular Dementia: Contribution of Reelin-dab1 Signaling Pathway

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          Abstract

          Background

          As a substrate of apoER2, Reelin has been verified to exert neuroprotection by preventing memory impairment. Pinocembrin is the most abundant natural flavonoid found in propolis, and it has been used to exert neuroprotection, blood–brain barrier protection, anti-oxidation, and inflammation diminishing, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the roles and molecular mechanisms of pinocembrin in neurobehavioral outcomes and neuronal repair after vascular dementia are still under investigation.

          Purpose

          To explore the role of pinocembrin in the involvement of the Reelin-dab1 signaling pathway in improving memory impairment, both in cell culture and animals experiments.

          Material and Methods

          Behavioral tests were conducted on day 48 to confirm the protection of pinocembrin against cognitive impairment. Cell and molecular biology experiments demonstrated that the Reelin-dab1 pathway mediates the underlying mechanism of cognitive improvement by pinocembrin.

          Results

          It was showed that pinocembrin alleviated learning and memory deficits induced by vascular dementia, by inducing the expression of Reelin, apoER2, and p-dab1 in the hippocampus. The expression of Reelin and p-dab1 was both inhibited following Reelin RNA interference in SH-SY5Y prior to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) injury, suggesting that Reelin played a core role in pinocembrin’s effect on OGD in vitro.

          Conclusion

          Pinocembrin improves the cognition via the Reelin-dab1 signaling pathway.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in the rat: a model for chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-related neurodegenerative diseases.

          Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been associated with cognitive decline in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, the pattern of cerebral blood flow in mild cognitive impairment has emerged as a predictive marker for the progression into Alzheimer's disease. The reconstruction of a pathological condition in animal models is a suitable approach to the unraveling of causal relationships. For this reason, permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) in rats has been established as a procedure to investigate the effects of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative processes. Over the years, the 2VO model has generated a large amount of data, revealing the 2VO-related pattern of cerebral hypoperfusion and metabolic changes, learning and memory disturbances, failure of neuronal signaling, and the neuropathological changes in the hippocampus. In addition, the model has been introduced in research into ischemic white matter injury and ischemic eye disease. The present survey sets out to provide a comprehensive summary of the achievements made with the 2VO model, and a critical evaluation and integration of the various results, and to relate the experimental data to human diseases. The data that have accumulated from use of the 2VO model in the rat permit an understanding of the causative role played by cerebral hypoperfusion in neurodegenerative diseases. Thorough characterization of the model suggests that 2VO in the rat is suitable for the development of potentially neuroprotective strategies in neurodegenerative diseases.
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            Reelin supplementation enhances cognitive ability, synaptic plasticity, and dendritic spine density.

            Apolipoprotein receptors belong to an evolutionarily conserved surface receptor family that has intimate roles in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and is necessary for proper hippocampal-dependent memory formation. The known lipoprotein receptor ligand Reelin is important for normal synaptic plasticity, dendritic morphology, and cognitive function; however, the in vivo effect of enhanced Reelin signaling on cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in wild-type mice is unknown. The present studies test the hypothesis that in vivo enhancement of Reelin signaling can alter synaptic plasticity and ultimately influence processes of learning and memory. Purified recombinant Reelin was injected bilaterally into the ventricles of wild-type mice. We demonstrate that a single in vivo injection of Reelin increased activation of adaptor protein Disabled-1 and cAMP-response element binding protein after 15 min. These changes correlated with increased dendritic spine density, increased hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), and enhanced performance in associative and spatial learning and memory. The present study suggests that an acute elevation of in vivo Reelin can have long-term effects on synaptic function and cognitive ability in wild-type mice.
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              The role of the hippocampus in navigation is memory

              There is considerable research on the neurobiological mechanisms within the hippocampal system that support spatial navigation. In this article I review the literature on navigational strategies in humans and animals, observations on hippocampal function in navigation, and studies of hippocampal neural activity in animals and humans performing different navigational tasks and tests of memory. Whereas the hippocampus is essential to spatial navigation via a cognitive map, its role derives from the relational organization and flexibility of cognitive maps and not from a selective role in the spatial domain. Correspondingly, hippocampal networks map multiple navigational strategies, as well as other spatial and nonspatial memories and knowledge domains that share an emphasis on relational organization. These observations suggest that the hippocampal system is not dedicated to spatial cognition and navigation, but organizes experiences in memory, for which spatial mapping and navigation are both a metaphor for and a prominent application of relational memory organization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                04 September 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 3577-3587
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University , Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target and Screening Research, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College , Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jing-Yu Yang Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University , Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China Email yangjingyu2006@gmail.com
                Guan-Hua Du Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target and Screening Research, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College , Beijing, People’s Republic of China Email dugh@imm.ac.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                249176
                10.2147/DDDT.S249176
                7481311
                © 2020 Kang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 34, Pages: 11
                Funding
                Funded by: National Science and Technology Major Projects for Major New Drugs Innovation and Development;
                This work was financially supported by National Science and Technology Major Projects for Major New Drugs Innovation and Development (2013ZX09508104, 2013ZX094022 03 and 2013ZX09103001-008).
                Categories
                Original Research

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