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      Pain problems for patients with mild and moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – a community-based study in Shanghai

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          Abstract

          Background

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a great public health burden worldwide. Few studies have focused on pain problems in patients with mild and moderate COPD in Chinese community settings.

          Methods

          A cross-sectional study of 283 patients with mild and moderate COPD was conducted in six communities that were randomly sampled in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China, in 2016. A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect data on personal characteristics and health conditions. The short form McGill Pain Questionnaire and the COPD assessment test (CAT) were applied to evaluate pain problems and health status, respectively.

          Results

          Among 283 subjects, more than one third (37%) had pain problems indicated by the present pain intensity (PPI) scale. COPD patients aged <65 years with exacerbation in the past 12 months or a CAT score of ≥10 had a significantly higher score in affective dimension. Female sex, COPD severity, and length of disease were significantly related to higher scores of the sensory dimension. Those with moderate COPD or a CAT score of ≥10 had significantly higher scores of visual analog scale than those with mild COPD or a CAT score <10. Patients with moderate COPD had a higher rank of PPI than those with mild COPD.

          Conclusion

          Pain was common in patients with mild and moderate COPD in the community settings of Shanghai, China. Severity of COPD and CAT score were significantly related to the prevalence of pain. Intervention measures should be developed to improve pain problems for COPD patients.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Health and quality of life associated with chronic pain of predominantly neuropathic origin in the community.

          To assess the health and quality of life associated with chronic pain of predominantly neuropathic origin (POPNO) on health and daily activity in the general population. The Self-complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) questionnaire, recently validated for identifying pain of predominantly neuropathic origin, was sent to 6000 adults identified from general practices in the United Kingdom, along with chronic pain identification and severity questions, the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Neuropathic Pain Scale, and the SF-36 general health questionnaire. With a corrected response rate of 52%, 3 groups of respondents were identified: those without chronic pain ("No Chronic Pain" group, n=1537); those with chronic pain who were S-LANSS positive indicating the presence of POPNO ("Chronic POPNO" group, n =241); and those with chronic pain who were S-LANSS negative ["Chronic Pain (non-POPNO)" group, n=1179]. The chronic POPNO group reported higher pain severity and had significantly poorer scores for all interference items of the BPI than those with chronic pain (non-POPNO). Mean scores from the Neuropathic Pain Scale were also significantly higher for the Chronic POPNO group. There were significant differences between the groups in all domains of the SF-36, with the Chronic POPNO group reporting the worst health. After adjusting for pain severity, age, and sex, the chronic POPNO group was still found to have poorer scores than the other Chronic Pain (non-POPNO) group in all domains of the SF-36 and all interference items in the BPI, indicating poorer health and greater disability. This study confirms the importance of identifying neuropathic pain in the community, and the need for multidimensional management strategies that address all aspects of health.
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            Understanding the impact of symptoms on the burden of COPD

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) imposes a substantial burden on individuals with the disease, which can include a range of symptoms (breathlessness, cough, sputum production, wheeze, chest tightness) of varying severities. We present an overview of the biomedical literature describing reported relationships between COPD symptoms and disease burden in terms of quality of life, health status, daily activities, physical activity, sleep, comorbid anxiety, and depression, as well as risk of exacerbations and disease prognosis. In addition, the substantial variability of COPD symptoms encountered (morning, daytime, and nighttime) is addressed and their implications for disease burden considered. The findings from this narrative review, which mainly focuses on real-world and observational studies, demonstrate the impact of COPD symptoms on the burden of disease and that improved recognition and understanding of their impact is central to alleviating this burden.
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              The 2011 revision of the global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of COPD (GOLD)--why and what?

              The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has published a strategy for diagnosis and for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) since 2001 and this has formed the basis for numerous national and regional guidelines. We describe the background for the 2011 revision of the GOLD document. The GOLD document is updated annually and revised every 5 years based on published research as well as an evaluation by an expert panel of how to best formulate and disseminate knowledge on COPD. The GOLD 2011 revision states that spirometry is required for making a clinical diagnosis of COPD. At the same time, the document has less emphasis on spirometric evaluation of disease severity and launches a combined assessment taking symptoms, spirometry and history of exacerbations into account. This is matched with initial treatment for COPD where smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and physical activity in general are given high priority followed by pharmacologic treatment guided by the novel assessment scheme. Comorbidities are often present in COPD and the GOLD 2011 revision gives some guidance in how to manage these as well as how to manage COPD in the presence of comorbidities. A more clinically oriented GOLD document will hopefully improve assessment and management of COPD. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2017
                15 September 2017
                : 10
                : 2247-2252
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Pudong Institute of Preventive Medicine, Fudan University
                [2 ]Department of Chronic Disease, Pudong New Area Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China
                [3 ]School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chaowei Fu, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Pudong Institute of Preventive Medicine, Fudan University, 8-313, 130 Dong’an Road, Shanghai 200032, China, Tel/Fax +86 215 423 7811, Email fcw@ 123456fudan.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                jpr-10-2247
                10.2147/JPR.S141940
                5608224
                © 2017 Xiao et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                pain, copd, chinese, community settings, prevalence

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