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      Vertical genotype 1 HCV infection treated successfully in the second year of life: A case report

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          Perinatal HCV transmission appears to be an important cause of HCV in children. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in young children is controversial because of spontaneous HCV clearance and possible adverse events.

          Case Report

          Vertical HCV genotype 1 infection was diagnosed in a 3-month-old infant. In the subsequent clinical examination we still observed hepatomegaly, fluctuations of ALT, AST and GGT activity, with the highest values 2206 U/L, 1319 U/L, and 297 U/L, respectively. In qPCR, HCV RNA was >700.000 IU/ml. In the 42nd week of observation, liver biopsy was performed with Grade 1 grading and Grade 1 staging. At age 12 months, interferon-alpha2b (1.5 MU 3 times a week) and ribavirin (2×80 mg daily) were administered for 48 weeks. At the beginning of the treatment we observed fever after IFN injection. In the 12 th week of therapy, HCV RNA disappeared followed by SVR, and it was sustained for 6 years. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pediatric (1-year-old) patient treated with combined IFN alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy.


          This case report confirms the possibility of successful anti-HCV treatment in a young child, with 6-year sustained virological response without significant adverse events.

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          Most cited references 17

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          The comparison of dexmedetomidine and midazolam used for sedation of patients during upper endoscopy: A prospective, randomized study.

          The aim of the present prospective, randomized study was to investigate and compare the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam in providing sedation for gastroscopy. A total of 50 adult patients (25 patients receiving dexmedetomidine and 25 patients receiving midazolam), 18 to 60 years of age, and rated I and II on the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system were included. A brief questionnaire was used to collect demographic data; patients were asked to rate anxiety, satisfaction with care to date and expected discomfort on a visual analogue scale. The following parameters were measured continuously and recorded every minute: heart rate, mean arterial pressure, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and respiratory rate. The two groups were similar with regard to age, body mass index, sex, education, duration of endoscopy, and ethanol or tobacco use. After the procedure, full recovery time, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels were similar in both groups. Both groups also had low levels of perceived procedural gagging, discomfort and anxiety scores (P > 0.05), and high satisfaction levels (90.1+/-3.0 for dexmedetomidine versus 84.9+/-4.5 for midazolam; P > 0.05). Retching and endoscopist satisfaction were significantly different in patients receiving dexmedetomidine versus those receiving midazolam (88.8+/-6.5 versus 73.5+/-16.4, P < 0.05; and 20.6+/-4.4 versus 45.2+/-6.0; P < 0.001). In the midazolam group, the number of patients who had adverse effects was higher than the dexmedetomidine group (P < 0.05). As a result, dexmedetomidine performed as effectively and safely as midazolam when used as a sedative in upper gastroscopy; it was superior to midazolam with regard to retching, rate of side effects and endoscopist satisfaction. It was concluded that dexmedetomidine may be a good alternative to midazolam to sedate patients for upper endoscopy.
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            Genetic variation in interleukin 28B with respect to vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus and spontaneous clearance in HCV-infected children.

            The vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV-VT) is a major route of HCV infection in children, but the risk factors remain incompletely understood. This study analyzed the role of interleukin 28B (IL28B) in HCV-VT and in the spontaneous clearance of HCV among infected infants. Between 1991 and 2009, 145 mothers were recruited for this study: 100 were HCV-RNA+ve / human immunodeficiency virus negative (HIV-ve), with 128 children, and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HCV antibody+ve, with 43 children. The infants were tested for HCV-RNA at birth and at regular intervals until the age of 6 years. IL28B (single nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860) was determined in the mothers and children. HCV-VT was assumed when children presented HCV-RNA+ve in two subsequent blood samples. HCV-VT-infected infants were categorized as: (1) transient viremia with posterior HCV-RNA-ve and without serum-conversion; (2) persistent infection with serum-conversion. Of the 31 mothers with CC polymorphism, 19 (61%) were HCV-RNA+ve, whereas among the 68 mothers with non-CC polymorphism, 56 (82%) were HCV-RNA+ve. In all, 26 of 128 (20%) infants born to the HCV-RNA+ve mothers acquired HCV infection, but only 9 (7%) were chronically infected. The rate of HCV-VT was higher among the mothers with higher HCV viremia. No HCV-VT was detected in the HCV-RNA-ve women. Neither the mothers' nor the childrens' IL-28 status was associated with an increased risk of HCV-VT. The factors influencing viral clearance among the infected children were genotype non-1 and genotype CC of IL28B. In logistic regression, child CC polymorphism was the only predictor of HCV-clearance in HCV genotype-1. High maternal viral load is the only predictive factor of HCV-VT. IL28B plays no role in HCV-VT, but IL28B CC child polymorphism is associated independently with the spontaneous clearance of HCV genotype-1 among infected children. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
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              Hepatitis C virus infection during pregnancy and the newborn period--are they opportunities for treatment?

              The worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in pregnant women is estimated to be between 1 and 8% and in children between 0.05% and 5%. While parenteral transmission is still common in children living in developing countries, perinatal transmission is now the leading cause of HCV transmission in developed countries. The absence of an HCV vaccine or approved therapy during pregnancy means that prevention of vertical transmission is still not possible. However, a low vertical transmission rate of 3-5%, a high rate of spontaneous clearance (25-50%) and delayed morbidity have resulted in HCV being overlooked in pregnant women and their infants. Yet a study of the natural history in mothers and children demonstrates that the prognosis of HCV can vary greatly and should be taken seriously. Factors known to increase the risk of perinatal transmission include HIV coinfection and higher maternal viral loads, while elective C-section and withholding breastfeeding have not been demonstrated to reduce vertical transmission. Current guidelines for the diagnosis of persistent perinatal infection require a positive anti-HCV test in infants born to infected mothers after 12 months or two positive HCV RNA tests at least 6 months apart. Current HCV treatment options using pegylated interferon and ribavirin are both unsuitable for use in pregnancy and infancy. However, new agents currently in preclinical phases of development, along with the recently identified association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the IL28 gene and treatment response, may serve to create a therapeutic window for these patients. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

                Author and article information

                Med Sci Monit
                Med. Sci. Monit
                Medical Science Monitor
                Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
                International Scientific Literature, Inc.
                10 December 2012
                : 18
                : 12
                : CS113-CS116
                Chair of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
                Author notes
                Małgorzata Pawłowska, Chair of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland, e-mail: mpawlowska@

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                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

                Case Study

                treatment, vertical hcv infection, genotype 1


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