Perinatal HCV transmission appears to be an important cause of HCV in children. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in young children is controversial because of spontaneous HCV clearance and possible adverse events.
Vertical HCV genotype 1 infection was diagnosed in a 3-month-old infant. In the subsequent clinical examination we still observed hepatomegaly, fluctuations of ALT, AST and GGT activity, with the highest values 2206 U/L, 1319 U/L, and 297 U/L, respectively. In qPCR, HCV RNA was >700.000 IU/ml. In the 42nd week of observation, liver biopsy was performed with Grade 1 grading and Grade 1 staging. At age 12 months, interferon-alpha2b (1.5 MU 3 times a week) and ribavirin (2×80 mg daily) were administered for 48 weeks. At the beginning of the treatment we observed fever after IFN injection. In the 12 th week of therapy, HCV RNA disappeared followed by SVR, and it was sustained for 6 years. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pediatric (1-year-old) patient treated with combined IFN alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy.