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      Estudio comparativo de las pruebas de Rosa de Bengala y Elisa competitivo para el diagnóstico de brucelosis en rebaños doble propósito del estado Lara, Venezuela Translated title: Comparative study of rose bengal and competitive elisa tests for brucellosis in dual purpose herds in Lara State, Venezuela


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          La brucelosis es una zoonosis que afecta negativamente los rebaños lecheros en América Latina. El hombre, fundamentalmente se infecta con la bacteria Brucella abortus por la ingesta de productos lácteos no pasteurizados. En Venezuela la mayor parte de la producción láctea se obtiene con animales mestizos doble propósito, generalmente criados bajo condiciones sanitarias defi cientes. Una fracción importante de esta leche es trasformada en quesos frescos para la alimentación humana. En el país la prueba tamiz ofi cial es la de Rosa de Bengala (RBT), mientras que el ELISA competitivo (cELISA) se considera como prueba confi rmatoria defi nitiva. Se realizó un estudio para conocer el estatus de la Brucelosis en el estado Lara-Venezuela, donde inicialmente se hicieron pruebas del Anillo de Leche (PAL) a 276 Unidades de Producción (UP), encontrándose que el 30% eran positivas. Posteriormente, se sometieron sueros sanguíneos de 13.351 bovinos de ambos sexos y de todos los grupos etáreos mayores de seis meses, de 83 UP positivas a la PAL, a las técnicas de RBT y cELISA. El índice de positividad fue de 0,51% con RBT y 7,33% con cELISA. Ambas pruebas indican que el estado Lara tiene bajo índice de positividad. Sin embargo, la sensibilidad relativa de la prueba de RBT resultó muy baja (6,44%), al compararla con la obtenida por cELISA. Esta baja sensibilidad se traduce en un alto número de falsos negativos que no son eliminados de los rebaños y que constituyen una fuente constante de infección para los otros animales y el hombre

          Translated abstract

          Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that negatively affects milk production in Latin America. Infections with Brucella abortus bacteria observed in human populations are fundamentally caused by ingestion of non-pasteurized milk by-products. In Venezuela, most of the milk production is obtained from crossbred dual purpose herds, which are generally under defi cient sanitary conditions. A signifi cant amount of milk produced is used for production of non-pasteurized cheese for human consumption. In Venezuela, the offi cial screening test for brucellosis is Rose Bengal test (RBT), leaving competitive ELISA test (cELISA) to only defi nitively confi rm results obtained from RBT. A trial was performed to assess the status of brucellosis in Lara state, Venezuela. Initially, milk ring tests were performed in 276 farms, with 30% of them testing positive. Serum samples were collected from all animals of farms that tested positive to ring test. A total of 13.351 serum samples were collected and tested with both RBT and cELISA assays. Positive index observed with RBT was lower when compared to cELISA (0.51% vs 7.33%, respectively). Furthermore, both tests confi rm that positive index in Lara state is very low. However, relative sensitivity observed in RBT is very low when compared to cELISA (6.44%). This low sensitivity could result in a high number of false negative animals that, consequently, will not be eliminated from the herds. Thus, this would constitute a constant source of infection to other animals and people

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          Brucellosis in Argentina.

          Brucellosis has been recognized in Argentina since the 19th century. Several studies demonstrated the presence of the disease in most of the domestic species. Actually, the estimate of prevalence is that between 10 and 13% of the farm animals are infected with bovine brucellosis with an individual rate of 4-5%. The annual economical losses have been estimated at 60,000,000 US dollars. The control of bovine brucellosis began in 1932 and successive resolutions have been issued since then. The current resolution indicates that B. abortus S19 is mandatory in female calves between 3 and 8 months of age. The vaccine strain B. abortus RB51 was provisionally approved but only for cattle older than 10 months of age. The brucellosis control program consists principally of test and slaughter. This methodology has been successful mainly in the dairy farms that have the incentive due to increased pricing because of obtaining a low prevalence of the disease. Brucellosis has been found in porcine, caprine, ovine and canine species. All Brucella species have been found in the country. Human brucellosis is an important disease and a national coordinated diagnostic net has been formed to better control the disease in man. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
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            Serological diagnosis of brucellosis began more than 100 years ago with a simple agglutination test. It was realized that this type of test was susceptible to false positive reactions resulting from, for instance, exposure to cross reacting microorganisms. It was also realized that this test format was inexpensive, simple and could be rapid, although results were subjectively scored. Therefore, a number of modifications were developed along with other types of tests. This served two purposes: one was to establish a rapid screening test with high sensitivity and perhaps less specificity and a confirmatory test, usually more complicated but also more specific, to be used on sera that reacted positively in screening tests. This led to another problem: if a panel of tests were performed and they did not all agree, which interpretation was correct? This problem was further compounded by the extensive use of a vaccine which gave rise to an antibody response similar to that resulting from field infection. This led to the development of an assay that could distinguish vaccinal antibody, starting with precipitin tests. These tests did not perform well, giving rise to the development of primary binding assays. These assays, including the competitive enzyme immunoassay and the fluorescence polarization assay are at the apex of current development, providing high sensitivity and specificity as well as speed and mobility in the case of the fluorescence polarization assay. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
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              Cluster analysis and disease mapping--why, when, and how? A step by step guide.

              Growing public awareness of environmental hazards has led to an increased demand for public health authorities to investigate geographical clustering of diseases. Although such cluster analysis is nearly always ineffective in identifying causes of disease, it often has to be used to address public concern about environmental hazards. Interpreting the resulting data is not straightforward, however, and this paper presents a guide for the non-specialist. The pitfalls include the fact that cluster analyses are usually done post hoc, and not as a result of a prior hypothesis. This is particularly true for investigations prompted by reported clusters, which have the inherent danger of overestimating the disease rate through "boundary shrinkage" of the population from which the cases are assumed to have arisen. In disease surveillance the problem of making multiple comparisons can be overcome by testing for clustering and autocorrelation. When rates of disease are illustrated in disease maps undue focus on areas where random fluctuation is greatest can be minimised by smoothing techniques. Despite the fact that cluster analyses rarely prove fruitful in identifying causation, they may-like single case reports-have the potential to generate new knowledge.

                Author and article information

                Zootecnia Tropical
                Zootecnia Trop.
                Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas INIA, Maracay, Venezuela. (Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela )
                June 2012
                : 30
                : 2
                : 135-145
                [02] Yaracuy orgnameInstituto Universitario de Tecnología del Yaracuy Venezuela
                [03] Yaracuy orgnameCentro de Investigaciones del Estado para la Producción Experimental Agroindustrial Venezuela
                [01] Lara orgnameUniversidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado orgdiv1Laboratorio de Diagnóstico Molecular - Laboratorio de Embriología y Endocrinología Molecular Venezuela
                [04] Maracaibo Zulia orgnameUniversidad del Zulia orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias Venezuela
                S0798-72692012000200002 S0798-7269(12)03000202


                : 06 June 2012
                : 22 January 2013
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 18, Pages: 11

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI: Texto completo solamente en formato PDF (ES)
                Artículos Científicos

                relative sensitivity,Brucelosis,Zoonosis,Rosa de Bengala,ELISA competitivo,índice de positividad,sensibilidad relativa,Brucellosis,Zoonotic disease,Rose Bengal Test,competitive ELISA,positive index


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