Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most common inflammatory autoimmune thyroid disease and also the most common cause of hypothyroidism in developed countries. There is evidence of the role of HT in developing thyroid cancers (TCs). This study investigated the association between HT and different types of TCs.
Results of a comprehensive search in three major databases, as well as hand searching, were screened in title/abstract and full-text stages and the relevant data were extracted from the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools and the meta-analysis was conducted with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software.
Out of 4785 records, 50 studies were included in the systematic review, and 27 of them met the criteria for quantitative synthesis. The results indicated a significant role for HT in developing papillary TC (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.61), medullary TC (OR: 2.70; 95% CI: 1.20 to 6.07) and lymphoma (OR:12.92; 95% CI: 2.15 to 77.63); but not anaplastic TC (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.90) and follicular TC (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.41 to 1.27). Also, this study found a significant association between HT and thyroid malignancies (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.77).
Although we found a significant association between HT and some types of TCs, High RoB studies, high level of heterogeneity, and the limited number of well-designed prospective studies, suggested the need for more studies to reach more reliable evidence.