High surface area, good conductivity, and high mechanical strength are important for carbon nanofiber fabrics (CNFs) as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. However, it remains a big challenge because of the trade-off between the strong and continuous conductive network and a well-developed porous structure. Herein, we report a simple strategy to integrate these properties into the electrospun CNFs by adding graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The uniformly embedded GQDs play a crucial bifunctional role in constructing an entire reinforcing phase and conductive network. Compared with the pure CNF, the GQD-reinforced activated CNF exhibits a greatly enlarged surface area from 140 to 2032 m2 g-1 as well as a significantly improved conductivity and strength of 5.5 and 2.5 times, respectively. The mechanism of the robust reinforcing effect is deeply investigated. As a freestanding supercapacitor electrode, the fabric performs a high capacitance of 335 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and extremely high capacitance retentions of 77% at 100 A g-1 and 45% at 500 A g-1. Importantly, the symmetric device can be charged to 80% capacitance within only 2.2 s, showing great potential for high-power startup supplies.