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      The Role of Benralizumab in Eosinophilic Immune Dysfunctions: A Case Report-Based Literature Review


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          In the past years, the knowledge of eosinophils playing a primary pathophysiologic role in several associated conditions has led to the development of biologics targeting therapies aiming at normalizing the immune response, reducing chronic inflammation, and preventing tissue damage. To better illustrate the potential relationship between different eosinophilic immune dysfunctions and the effects of biological therapies in this scenario, here, we present a case of a 63-year-old male first referred to our department in 2018 with a diagnosis of asthma, polyposis, and rhinosinusitis and presenting a suspicion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs' allergy. He also had a past medical history of eosinophilic gastroenteritis/duodenitis (eosinophilia counts >50 cells/high-power field HPF). The use of multiple courses of corticosteroid therapy failed to completely control these conditions. In October 2019, after starting benralizumab (an antibody directed against the alpha chain of the IL-5 cytokine receptor) as add-on treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma, important clinical improvements were reported both on the respiratory (no asthma exacerbations) and gastrointestinal systems (eosinophilia count 0 cells/HPF). Patients' quality of life also increased. Since June 2020, systemic corticosteroid therapy was reduced without worsening of gastrointestinal symptoms or eosinophilic inflammation. This case warns of the importance of early recognition and appropriate individualized treatment of eosinophilic immune dysfunctions and suggests the conduction of further larger studies on the use of benralizumab in gastrointestinal syndromes aiming at better understanding its relying mechanisms of action in the intestinal mucosa.

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          Most cited references47

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          Contemporary consensus proposal on criteria and classification of eosinophilic disorders and related syndromes.

          Eosinophilia is an important indicator of various neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions. Depending on the underlying disease and mechanisms, eosinophil infiltration can lead to organ dysfunction, clinical symptoms, or both. During the past 2 decades, several different classifications of eosinophilic disorders and related syndromes have been proposed in various fields of medicine. Although criteria and definitions are, in part, overlapping, no global consensus has been presented to date. The Year 2011 Working Conference on Eosinophil Disorders and Syndromes was organized to update and refine the criteria and definitions for eosinophilic disorders and to merge prior classifications in a contemporary multidisciplinary schema. A panel of experts from the fields of immunology, allergy, hematology, and pathology contributed to this project. The expert group agreed on unifying terminologies and criteria and a classification that delineates various forms of hypereosinophilia, including primary and secondary variants based on specific hematologic and immunologic conditions, and various forms of the hypereosinophilic syndrome. For patients in whom no underlying disease or hypereosinophilic syndrome is found, the term hypereosinophilia of undetermined significance is introduced. The proposed novel criteria, definitions, and terminologies should assist in daily practice, as well as in the preparation and conduct of clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Anti-interleukin-5 antibody treatment (mepolizumab) in active eosinophilic oesophagitis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

            Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoO) is a clinicopathological condition defined by proton pump inhibitor-refractory oesophageal symptoms combined with oesophageal eosinophilia. The pharmacodynamic effect of mepolizumab (a humanised anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody) in EoO was evaluated. Eleven adults with active EoO (>20 peak eosinophil number/high power field (hpf) and dysphagia) were randomised to 750 mg of mepolizumab (n = 5) or placebo (n = 6) and received two intravenous infusions, 1 week apart. Those not in complete remission (<5 peak eosinophil number/hpf) after 8 weeks received two further doses 4 weeks apart, 1500 mg of mepolizumab or placebo. The effect of mepolizumab was assessed clinically, endoscopically, histologically, and via blood and tissue biomarkers. As assessed by immunofluorescence, a marked reduction of mean oesophageal eosinophilia (p = 0.03) was seen in the mepolizumab group (-54%) compared with the placebo group (-5%) 4 weeks after initiation of treatment. No further reduction of eosinophil numbers was observed in response to the two additional infusions in either group. Mepolizumab reduced tenascin C (p = 0.033) and transforming growth factor beta1 (p = 0.05) expression in the oesophageal epithelial layer 13 weeks after initiation of treatment. Clinically, limited improvement of symptoms was seen, although a trend was seen between 4 and 13 weeks after initiation of mepolizumab treatment. Mepolizumab was well tolerated. Mepolizumab significantly reduced eosinophil numbers in oesophageal tissues in adult patients with active EoO, and changes in the expression of molecules associated with oesophageal remodelling were reversed. Minimal clinical improvement was achieved in a subgroup of patients with EoO. Mepolizumab had an acceptable safety profile, even at the high 1500 mg dose level. NCT00274703.
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              Reslizumab in children and adolescents with eosinophilic esophagitis: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

              Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic allergic disease with insufficient treatment options. Results from animal studies suggest that IL-5 induces eosinophil trafficking in the esophagus. We sought to evaluate the effect of reslizumab, a neutralizing antibody against IL-5, in children and adolescents with eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients with symptom severity scores of moderate or worse and an esophageal biopsy specimen with 24 or more intraepithelial eosinophils per high-power field were randomly assigned to receive infusions of 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg reslizumab or placebo at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12. The coprimary efficacy measures were changes in peak esophageal eosinophil count and the physician's global assessment score at week 15 (end of therapy). Two-hundred twenty-six patients received study medication. Median reductions from baseline to the end of therapy in peak esophageal eosinophil counts were 59%, 67%, 64%, and 24% in the 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg reslizumab (all P < .001) and placebo groups, respectively. All treatment groups, including the placebo group, showed improvements in physician's global assessment scores; the differences between the reslizumab and placebo groups were not statistically significant. The most common adverse events in the reslizumab groups were headache, cough, nasal congestion, and upper respiratory tract infection. One patient in each reslizumab group and 2 in the placebo group had serious adverse events; none were considered related to the study medication. Reslizumab significantly reduced intraepithelial esophageal eosinophil counts in children and adolescents with eosinophilic esophagitis. However, improvements in symptoms were observed in all treatment groups and were not associated with changes in esophageal eosinophil counts. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Case Rep Med
                Case Rep Med
                Case Reports in Medicine
                24 April 2023
                : 2023
                : 8832242
                1Serviço de Imunoalergologia, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal
                2Serviço de Gastroenterologia, Hospital Professor Doutor Fernando Fonseca, EPE, Amadora, Portugal
                3H & TRC-Health & Technology Research Center, ESTeSL-Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Piotr K. Janicki

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Margarida Gomes et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 14 December 2022
                : 24 March 2023
                : 5 April 2023
                Funded by: AstraZeneca
                Case Report


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