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      The cell biology of receptor-mediated virus entry

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      The Journal of Cell Biology

      The Rockefeller University Press

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          Abstract

          The cell imposes multiple barriers to virus entry. However, viruses exploit fundamental cellular processes to gain entry to cells and deliver their genetic cargo. Virus entry pathways are largely defined by the interactions between virus particles and their receptors at the cell surface. These interactions determine the mechanisms of virus attachment, uptake, intracellular trafficking, and, ultimately, penetration to the cytosol. Elucidating the complex interplay between viruses and their receptors is necessary for a full understanding of how these remarkable agents invade their cellular hosts.

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          Most cited references 157

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          Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus

          Spike (S) proteins of coronaviruses, including the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), associate with cellular receptors to mediate infection of their target cells 1,2 . Here we identify a metallopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) 3,4 , isolated from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-permissive Vero E6 cells, that efficiently binds the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV S protein. We found that a soluble form of ACE2, but not of the related enzyme ACE1, blocked association of the S1 domain with Vero E6 cells. 293T cells transfected with ACE2, but not those transfected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 receptors, formed multinucleated syncytia with cells expressing S protein. Furthermore, SARS-CoV replicated efficiently on ACE2-transfected but not mock-transfected 293T cells. Finally, anti-ACE2 but not anti-ACE1 antibody blocked viral replication on Vero E6 cells. Together our data indicate that ACE2 is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV. Supplementary information The online version of this article (doi:10.1038/nature02145) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Isolation of a common receptor for Coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5.

            A complementary DNA clone has been isolated that encodes a coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). When transfected with CAR complementary DNA, nonpermissive hamster cells became susceptible to coxsackie B virus attachment and infection. Furthermore, consistent with previous studies demonstrating that adenovirus infection depends on attachment of a viral fiber to the target cell, CAR-transfected hamster cells bound adenovirus in a fiber-dependent fashion and showed a 100-fold increase in susceptibility to virus-mediated gene transfer. Identification of CAR as a receptor for these two unrelated and structurally distinct viral pathogens is important for understanding viral pathogenesis and has implications for therapeutic gene delivery with adenovirus vectors.
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              CD209L (L-SIGN) is a receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

              Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a receptor for SARS-CoV, the novel coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome [Li, W. Moore, M. J., Vasilieva, N., Sui, J., Wong, S. K., Berne, M. A., Somasundaran, M., Sullivan, J. L., Luzuriaga, K., Greenough, T. C., et al. (2003) Nature 426, 450-454]. We have identified a different human cellular glycoprotein that can serve as an alternative receptor for SARS-CoV. A human lung cDNA library in vesicular stomatitis virus G pseudotyped retrovirus was transduced into Chinese hamster ovary cells, and the cells were sorted for binding of soluble SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoproteins, S(590) and S(1180). Clones of transduced cells that bound SARS-CoV S glycoprotein were inoculated with SARS-CoV, and increases in subgenomic viral RNA from 1-16 h or more were detected by multiplex RT-PCR in four cloned cell lines. Sequencing of the human lung cDNA inserts showed that each of the cloned cell lines contained cDNA that encoded human CD209L, a C-type lectin (also called L-SIGN). When the cDNA encoding CD209L from clone 2.27 was cloned and transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells, the cells expressed human CD209L glycoprotein and became susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV. Immunohistochemistry showed that CD209L is expressed in human lung in type II alveolar cells and endothelial cells, both potential targets for SARS-CoV. Several other enveloped viruses including Ebola and Sindbis also use CD209L as a portal of entry, and HIV and hepatitis C virus can bind to CD209L on cell membranes but do not use it to mediate virus entry. Our data suggest that the large S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV may use both ACE2 and CD209L in virus infection and pathogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                J. Cell Biol
                jcb
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                26 December 2011
                : 195
                : 7
                : 1071-1082
                Affiliations
                Cell Biology Unit, Medical Research Council Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, England, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Joe Grove: j.grove@ 123456ucl.ac.uk
                Article
                201108131
                10.1083/jcb.201108131
                3246895
                22123832
                © 2011 Grove and Marsh

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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