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      Identifying the factors promoting colorectal cancer screening uptake in Hong Kong using Andersen’s behavioural model of health services use


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          Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is an effective strategy to aid early cancer detection. However, the decision to undergo screening can be affected by a variety of factors. The aims of this study were to examine current CRC screening uptake in Hong Kong and identify the factors associated with it using Andersen’s Behavioural Model as a guiding framework.


          This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hong Kong from August 2019 to December 2020. A sample of 1317 Chinese individuals aged 50 to 75 years were recruited and completed a survey to identify predisposing, enabling, and need-for-care factors, and the colorectal cancer screening uptake rate (faecal occult blood test [FOBT] or faecal immunochemical test [FIT] and colonoscopy) was determined.


          The FOBT/FIT uptake rate was 43.9%, while that of the colonoscopy was 26.0%. The provision of a government subsidy for screening and the provision of information booklets were the most significant and second most significant enabling factors for FOBT/FIT uptake, respectively. Visiting a doctor five times or more in the previous year and being recommended to undergo a CRC screening by a doctor, were the most significant enabling factors for colonoscopy uptake. Age, the perceived benefit of and barriers to screening were important predisposing factors for FOBT/FIT and colonoscopy uptake.


          Screening uptake rates in Hong Kong have significantly increased over the last decade, although they remain lower than those in other countries. Continual efforts are warranted to promote government-subsidised screening. Relevant educational materials that address the barriers identified in this study should be developed and disseminated to the public.

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          Most cited references27

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            Applied Logistic Regression

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              Revisiting the Behavioral Model and Access to Medical Care: Does it Matter?

              The Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was initially developed over 25 years ago. In the interim it has been subject to considerable application, reprobation, and alteration. I review its development and assess its continued relevance.

                Author and article information

                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                20 June 2022
                20 June 2022
                : 22
                : 1228
                GRID grid.10784.3a, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0482, The Nethersole School of Nursing, , 7/F, Esther Lee Building, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, ; Hong Kong SAR, China
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 22 October 2021
                : 14 June 2022
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Public health
                colorectal cancer,screening,faecal occult blood test,colonoscopy
                Public health
                colorectal cancer, screening, faecal occult blood test, colonoscopy


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