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      Seroepidemiology of human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the Netherlands

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          Most cited references 33

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          Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

          A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case-control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from December 1998 to December 1999. Cases and controls in the case-control study supplied a questionnaire and stool samples. The standardized gastroenteritis incidence was 283 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence rose with increasing level of education and was higher for persons with a history of diarrhea and for young children. Bacterial pathogens accounted for 5% of cases, bacterial toxins for 9%, parasites for 6%, and viral pathogens for 21%, with Norwalk-like virus (NLV) as the leading pathogen in 11% of cases. The gastroenteritis incidence was higher than that reported for England, but lower than for the United States. In community cases, viral pathogens are the leading cause of gastroenteritis, with NLV being the number one cause of illness in all age groups but one. In many countries, preventive measures are implemented to decrease bacterial infections. However, additional prevention of viral infections, especially NLV, might significantly decrease the number of gastroenteritis cases in the community.
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            How common is human toxocariasis? Towards standardizing our knowledge.

            Our understanding of the global impact and cost of human toxocariasis is poor because there is insufficient clinical awareness and no clear repository for the efficacy of clinical, laboratory and treatment interventions. Uniform clinical and laboratory investigative approaches maximize disease diagnosis. International collaboration is required to develop web-based, professional educational support, surveillance questionnaires and standardized serodiagnostic criteria. Determining clinical benefits and treatment outcomes using less crossreactive antigens will enhance clinical and treatment interventions. Increased liaison will identify realistic occurrence and prevalence data and cost benefits of intervention. Web-based centres of excellence and repositories of current knowledge, which augment current veterinary and public health educational sites, should be supported. Expected outcomes should be capable of addressing the clinical and financial burdens of this treatable disease.
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              Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in The Netherlands.

              Pets may carry zoonotic pathogens for which owners are at risk. The aim of the study is to investigate whether healthy pets harbour zoonotic parasitic infections and to make an inventory of the interactions between pet-owners and their companion animals in The Netherlands. Fecal and hair samples were collected from healthy household dogs and cats in Dutch veterinary practices. Owners were interviewed about interaction with their pets. The samples were investigated by microscopy, ELISA, and PCR. From 159 households, 152 dogs (D) and 60 cats (C), information and samples were collected and examination for several zoonotic parasites was performed. Toxocara eggs were found in 4.4% (D) and 4.6% (C) of the fecal samples and in 12.2% (D) and 3.4% (C) of the fur samples. The median epg in the fur was 17 (D) and 28 (C) and none of these eggs were viable. From 15.2% of the dog and 13.6% of the cat feces Giardia was isolated. One canine and one feline Giardia isolate was a zoonotic assemblage A (12%). Cryptosporidium sp. were present in 8.7% (D) and 4.6% (C) of the feces. Fifty percent of the owners allow the pet to lick their faces. Sixty percent of the pets visit the bedroom; 45-60% (D-C) are allowed on the bed, and 18-30% (D-C) sleep with the owner in bed. Six percent of the pets always sleep in the bedroom. Of the cats, 45% are allowed to jump onto the kitchen sink. Nearly 39% of the dog owners never clean up the feces of their dog. Fifteen percent of the dog owners and 8% of the cat owners always wash their hands after contact with the animals. Close physical contact between owners and their pets is common and poses an increased risk of transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Education of owners by the vet, specifically about hygiene and potential risks, is required.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasitology Research
                Parasitol Res
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                0932-0113
                1432-1955
                October 2016
                May 27 2016
                October 2016
                : 115
                : 10
                : 3779-3794
                Article
                10.1007/s00436-016-5139-6
                © 2016

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