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      Risk Factors of Nontunneled Noncuffed Hemodialysis Catheter Malfunction

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          Background: The use of noncuffed nontunneled central venous catheters is a widely accepted method of gaining temporary vascular access for hemodialysis. Malfunction and bacteremia are the main factors limiting catheter survival. Methods: We followed up prospectively 73 hemodialysis catheters (HC) (40 internal jugular, 33 femoral) in order to establish factors influencing HC malfunction. HC malfunction was defined as a catheter that was unable to attain and maintain blood flows of at least 150 ml/min. 73 HC were used for a total 1,100 days. Results: HC malfunction occurred in 23 cases (31.51%) during the study period, giving an overall rate of 21 episodes per 1,000 catheter days at risk. An analysis revealed a higher risk of HC malfunction with the catheterization of the femoral vein compared to the internal jugular vein (hazard ratio (HR) 6.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–7.3). After correction for confounding factors in multivariate Cox analysis, the site of the catheterization remained a statistically significant predictor of HC malfunction (HR 5.03, 95% CI 3.83–6.23). After the first week malfunction rate was 42 and 8% for femoral and internal jugular site, respectively (relative risk (RR) for malfunction 5.3 (95% CI, 2.5–8). After the second and third week, the incidence of malfunction was 51 and 14% for femoral and internal jugular vein, respectively (RR 3.6, 95% CI 2.2–5.1). Conclusions: Catheterization of the internal jugular vein is associated with longer catheter survival when compared to the femoral vein. Hemodialysis catheters should be placed, if possible, in internal jugular vein to prevent their premature malfunction.

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          Risk of bacteremia from temporary hemodialysis catheters by site of insertion and duration of use: a prospective study.

          Uncuffed, nontunneled hemodialysis catheters remain the preferred means to gain immediate access to the circulation for hemodialysis. Bacteremia is the primary complication that limits their use. The risk of bacteremia by site of insertion and duration of use has not been well studied. Two hundred eighteen consecutive patients who required a temporary hemodialysis catheter were prospectively followed. Catheters were placed at 318 new insertion sites and remained in use for a total of 6235 days. The incidence of bacteremia was 5.4% after three weeks of placement in internal jugular vein and 10.7% after one week in femoral vein [relative risk for bacteremia 3.1 (95% CI, 1.8 to 5.2)]. The incidence of bacteremia was 1.9% one day after the onset of an exit site infection but increased to 13.4% by the second day if the catheter was not removed. Guidewire exchange for malfunction and patient factors did not significantly affect the risk of bacteremia. Internal jugular catheters may be left in place for up to three weeks without a high risk of bacteremia, but femoral catheters in bed-bound patients should be removed after one week. Catheter exchanges over a guidewire for catheter malfunction do not increase bacteremia rates. Temporary catheters should be removed immediately if an exit site infection occurs.
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            Acute Dialysis Catheters


              Author and article information

              Nephron Clin Pract
              Nephron Clinical Practice
              S. Karger AG
              February 2004
              17 November 2004
              : 96
              : 2
              : c43-c47
              Department of Nephrology and Internal Medicine, Medical University Of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
              76398 Nephron Clin Pract 2004;96:c43–c47
              © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 13, Pages: 1
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