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      Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos crudos bioactivos de raíces de Morinda royoc L. crecidas en Cuba Translated title: Antimicrobial activity of bioactive crude extracts of Morinda royoc L. roots grown in Cuba

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de extractos crudos de raíces de Morinda royoc L., ricos en antraquinonas bioactivas, sobre dos bacterias fitopatógenas (Xanthomonas campestris p.v. phaseoli y Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum), dos bacterias patógenas de humanos (Bacillus licheniformis y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) y tres hongos fitopatógenos (Rhizoctonia solani Kϋhn, Stemphylium solani Webber y Sarocladium oryzae Sawada). El extracto se preparó a una concentración de 10 mg·ml-1, previamente obtenido por el método de extracción en Soxhlet. Para la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana se utilizó el método de difusión en agar para las bacterias y el de microdilución para los hongos. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio demostraron que el extracto fue efectivo para inhibir más del 50 % del crecimiento de Xanthomonas campestris sin diferencias significativas entre las diferentes dosis usadas. Bajo las mismas condiciones, se alcanzó una inhibición ca. del 50 % del crecimiento de las bacterias Bacillus licheniformis y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia a las 48 horas de exposición a las dosis 150 y 450 µg respectivamente. Por otro lado, los hongos estudiados mostraron susceptibilidad al extracto después de las 48 horas de incubación. La mayor actividad antifúngica se logró frente a Rhizoctonia solani, con una reducción ca. 50 % de su crecimiento frente a las concentraciones 1,25 y 2,5 mg·ml-1 sin diferencias significativas. Después de 72 horas de incubación no se observó actividad inhibitoria del extracto en el crecimiento de los hongos. De todos los patógenos estudiados en este trabajo, Pectobacterium carotovorum fue el único que no mostró susceptibilidad frente a las dosis de extracto usadas.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the anthraquinone-rich crude extract of Morinda royoc L. roots. Its inhibitory activity was tested on two plant-pathogen bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum), two human-pathogen bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) and three plant-pathogen fungi (Rhizoctonia solani Kϋhn, Stemphylium solani Webber and Sarocladium oryzae Sawada). The extract was prepared at 10 mg·ml-1, previously obtained by Soxhlet extraction method. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity on bacteria, the agar diffusion method was used, whereas the microdilution method was developed to evaluate the inhibitory activity against fungi. The results obtained from this study demonstrated that the anthraquinone-rich extract was effective in inhibiting more than 50 % of Xanthomonas campestris growth without significant differences between the different doses. After 48 hours and under the same conditions, growth inhibition ca. 50 % of Bacillus licheniformis and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was observed at the doses of 150 and 450 µg, respectively. On the other hand, all the selected fungi in this study showed susceptibility to the extract after 48 hours of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was achieved on Rhizoctonia solani, with a growth reduction ca. 50 % at concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg·ml-1. After 72 hours of incubation, no significant differences were observed in the growth of any of the three fungi. From all the pathogens selected for this study, only Pectobacterium carotovorum showed no susceptibility to any of the evaluated doses of the extract.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Studies on lysogenesis. I. The mode of phage liberation by lysogenic Escherichia coli.

           G Bertani (1951)
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            Membrane-related effects underlying the biological activity of the anthraquinones emodin and barbaloin.

            Commercial plant extracts containing anthraquinones are being increasingly used for cosmetics, food and pharmaceuticals due to their wide therapeutic and pharmacological properties. In this work, the interaction with model membranes of two representative 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinones, barbaloin (Aloe) and emodin (Rheum, Polygonum), has been studied in order to explain their effects in biological membranes. Emodin showed a higher affinity for phospholipid membranes than barbaloin did, and was more effective in weakening hydrophobic interactions between hydrocarbon chains in phospholipid bilayers. Whereas emodin induced the formation of hexagonal-H(II) phase, barbaloin stabilized lamellar structures. Barbaloin promoted the formation of gel-fluid intermediate structures in phosphatidylglycerol membranes at physiological pH and ionic strength values. It is proposed that emodin's chromophore group is located at the upper half of the membrane, whereas barbaloin's one is in a deeper position but having its glucopyranosyl moiety near the phospholipid/water interface. Moreover, membrane disruption by emodin or barbaloin showed specificity for the two major phospholipids present in bacterial membranes, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. In order to relate their strong effects on membranes to their biological activity, the capacity of these compounds to inhibit the infectivity of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV), a negative RNA enveloped virus, or the growth of Escherichia coli was tested. Anthraquinone-loaded liposomes showed a strong antimicrobial activity whereas these compounds in their free form did not. Both anthraquinones showed antiviral activity but only emodin was a virucidal agent. In conclusion, a molecular mechanism based on the effect of these compounds on the structure of biological membranes is proposed to account for their multiple biological activities. Anthraquinone-loaded liposomes may suppose an alternative for antimicrobial, pharmaceutical or cosmetic applications.
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              Comparison of the Vitek 2 antifungal susceptibility system with the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) Broth Microdilution Reference Methods and with the Sensititre YeastOne and Etest techniques for in vitro detection of antifungal resistance in yeast isolates.

              The commercial technique Vitek 2 system for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast species was evaluated. A collection of 154 clinical yeast isolates, including amphotericin B- and azole-resistant organisms, was tested. Results were compared with those obtained by the reference procedures of both the CLSI and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Two other commercial techniques approved for clinical use, the Etest and the Sensititre YeastOne, were included in the comparative exercise as well. The average essential agreement (EA) between the Vitek 2 system and the reference procedures was >95%, comparable with the average EAs observed between the reference procedures and the Sensititre YeastOne and Etest. The EA values were >97% for Candida spp. and stood at 92% for Cryptococcus neoformans. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between the commercial techniques and the reference procedures were statistically significant (P<0.01). Percentages of very major errors were 2.6% between Vitek 2 and the EUCAST technique and 1.6% between Vitek 2 and the CLSI technique. The Vitek 2 MIC results were available after 14 to 18 h of incubation for all Candida spp. (average time to reading, 15.5 h). The Vitek 2 system was shown to be a reliable technique to determine antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast species and a more rapid and easier alternative for clinical laboratories than the procedures developed by either the CLSI or EUCAST.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rpv
                Revista de Protección Vegetal
                Rev. Protección Veg.
                Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (La Habana, , Cuba )
                1010-2752
                2224-4697
                April 2020
                : 35
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Ciego de Ávila orgnameUniversidad de Ciego de Ávila orgdiv1Centro de Bioplantas Cuba
                Article
                S1010-27522020000100003 S1010-2752(20)03500100003

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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