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      Extraction, Purification, Structural Characteristics, Biological Activities and Pharmacological Applications of Acemannan, a Polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A Review


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          Aloe vera is a medicinal plant species of the genus Aloe with a long history of usage around the world. Acemannan, considered one of the main bioactive polysaccharides of Aloe vera, possesses immunoregulation, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, wound healing and bone proliferation promotion, neuroprotection, and intestinal health promotion activities, among others. In this review, recent advancements in the extraction, purification, structural characteristics and biological activities of acemannan from Aloe vera were summarized. Among these advancements, the structural characteristics of purified polysaccharides were reviewed in detail. Meanwhile, the biological activities of acemannan from Aloe vera determined by in vivo, in vitro and clinical experiments are summarized, and possible mechanisms of these bioactivities were discussed. Moreover, the latest research progress on the use of acemannan in dentistry and wound healing was also summarized in details. The structure-activity relationships of acemannan and its medical applications were discussed. Finally, new perspectives for future research work on acemannan were proposed. In conclusion, this review summarizes the extraction, purification, structural characteristics, biological activities and pharmacological applications of acemannan, and provides information for the industrial production and possible applications in dentistry and wound healing in the future.

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              Composition and Applications of Aloe vera Leaf Gel

              Many of the health benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves. These biological activities include promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, hypoglycemic or antidiabetic effects anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory and gastroprotective properties. While the known biological activities of A. vera will be briefly discussed, it is the aim of this review to further highlight recently discovered effects and applications of the leaf gel. These effects include the potential of whole leaf or inner fillet gel liquid preparations of A. vera to enhance the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of co-administered compounds as well as enhancement of skin permeation. In addition, important pharmaceutical applications such as the use of the dried A. vera gel powder as an excipient in sustained release pharmaceutical dosage forms will be outlined.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                19 April 2019
                April 2019
                : 24
                : 8
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; liuchang670250789@ 123456gmail.com (C.L.); pifuwei@ 123456jiangnan.edu.cn (F.P.); wxfoodcyl@ 123456126.com (Y.C.)
                [2 ]Synergetic Innovation Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
                [3 ]Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Key Laboratory of Preservation Engineering of Agricultural Products, Ningbo Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ningbo 315040, China; cuiyan1605@ 123456126.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: guoyahui@ 123456jiangnan.edu.cn (Y.G.); amtf168168@ 123456126.com (H.Q.); Tel.: +86-510-8532-8713 (Y.G. & H.Q.)
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 26 March 2019
                : 17 April 2019

                aloe vera,polysaccharide,acemannan,biological activity,applications,structure


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