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      Fatty Acid Composition of Developing Sea Buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Berry and the Transcriptome of the Mature Seed

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          Abstract

          Background

          Sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a hardy, fruit-producing plant known historically for its medicinal and nutraceutical properties. The most recognized product of sea buckthorn is its fruit oil, composed of seed oil that is rich in essential fatty acids, linoleic (18∶2ω-6) and α-linolenic (18∶3ω-3) acids, and pulp oil that contains high levels of monounsaturated palmitoleic acid (16∶1ω-7). Sea buckthorn is fast gaining popularity as a source of functional food and nutraceuticals, but currently has few genomic resources; therefore, we explored the fatty acid composition of Canadian-grown cultivars (ssp. mongolica) and the sea buckthorn seed transcriptome using the 454 GS FLX sequencing technology.

          Results

          GC-MS profiling of fatty acids in seeds and pulp of berries indicated that the seed oil contained linoleic and α-linolenic acids at 33–36% and 30–36%, respectively, while the pulp oil contained palmitoleic acid at 32–42%. 454 sequencing of sea buckthorn cDNA collections from mature seeds yielded 500,392 sequence reads, which identified 89,141 putative unigenes represented by 37,482 contigs and 51,659 singletons. Functional annotation by Gene Ontology and computational prediction of metabolic pathways indicated that primary metabolism (protein>nucleic acid>carbohydrate>lipid) and fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis pathways were highly represented categories. Sea buckthorn sequences related to fatty acid biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis were identified, and a subset of these was examined for transcript expression at four developing stages of the berry.

          Conclusion

          This study provides the first comprehensive genomic resources represented by expressed sequences for sea buckthorn, and demonstrates that the seed oil of Canadian-grown sea buckthorn cultivars contains high levels of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in a close to 1∶1 ratio, which is beneficial for human health. These data provide the foundation for further studies on sea buckthorn oil, the enzymes involved in its biosynthesis, and the genes involved in the general hardiness of sea buckthorn against environmental conditions.

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          Most cited references 64

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            Carotenoids are a diverse group of colourful pigments naturally found in plants, algae, fungi and bacteria. They play essential roles in development, photosynthesis, root-mycorrhizal interactions and the production of phytohormones, such as abscisic acid and strigolactone. Carotenoid biosynthesis is regulated throughout the life cycle of a plant with dynamic changes in composition matched to prevailing developmental requirements and in response to external environmental stimuli. There are key regulatory nodes in the pathway that control the flux of metabolites into the pathway and alter flux through the pathway. The molecular nature of the mechanisms regulating carotenoid biosynthesis, including evidence for metabolite feedback, transcription and epigenetic control as well as their accumulation, storage and degradation will be the focus of this review. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2012
                27 April 2012
                : 7
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Agricultural, Food & Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
                [3 ]Agroforestry Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Indian Head, Saskatchewan, Canada
                [4 ]Plant Biotechnology Institute, National Research Council, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
                [5 ]Departments of Computing Science and Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
                Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Germany
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: PK RJW TF CS. Performed the experiments: TF CS. Analyzed the data: TF CS PK RJW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: WRS. Wrote the paper: PK TF CS. Oversaw standardization of fatty acid analysis: DW. Oversaw fatty acid analysis: RJW. Carried out in silico analysis of ESTs related to fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds of sea buckthorn, flax and Arabidopsis: DC RD.

                Article
                PONE-D-11-20799
                10.1371/journal.pone.0034099
                3338740
                22558083
                Fatima et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 18
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Biochemistry
                Lipids
                Fatty Acids
                Computational Biology
                Genomics
                Genome Analysis Tools
                Transcriptomes
                Developmental Biology
                Plant Growth and Development
                Genomics
                Genome Analysis Tools
                Gene Ontologies
                Transcriptomes
                Genome Expression Analysis
                Genome Sequencing
                Plant Science

                Uncategorized

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