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      Isolation of Oral Bacteria, Measurement of the C-Reactive Protein, and Blood Clinical Parameters in Dogs with Oral Tumor


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          Canine oral cancers have a poor prognosis and are related to chronic inflammation. This may pose a risk of secondary bacterial infection. This study aimed to compare the bacteria isolated from oral swab samples, values of C-reactive proteins (CRPs), and clinical blood profiles of dogs with and without oral mass. A total of 36 dogs were divided in three groups: no oral mass ( n = 21), oral mass ( n = 8), and metastasis groups ( n = 7). Significantly, both the clinical groups (the oral mass group and metastasis group) showed anemia, a decrease in the albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR), and an increase in the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), globulin-to-albumin ratio (GAR), CRP, and CRP-to-albumin ratio (CAR) compared to the normal group. CAR showed an increasing trend in the oral mass and metastasis groups (10 times and 100 times, respectively) compared to the no oral mass group ( P < 0.001). Neisseria spp. (20.78%) was the main isolated bacteria in all groups. The main genera in the no oral mass group were Neisseria spp. (28.26%), Pasteurella spp. (19.57%), and Staphylococcus spp. (19.57%). Neisseria spp., Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., and Escherichia spp. were found equally (12.5%) in the oral mass group. Escherichia spp. (26.67%), Pseudomonas spp. (13.33%), and Staphylococcus spp. (13.33%) were the main genera in the metastasis group. Interestingly, Neisseria spp. decreased in the clinical groups (Fisher's exact = 6.39, P=0.048), and Escherichia spp. increased in the metastasis group (Fisher's exact = 14.00, P=0.002). The difference of oral bacteria in clinical dogs compared to healthy dogs may be related to microbiome alterations, and both the clinical groups showed the increment of inflammatory biomarkers. This suggested that further studies should be conducted on the correlation between the specific bacteria, CRP, blood clinical parameters, and type of canine oral mass.

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              The human tumor microbiome is composed of tumor type–specific intracellular bacteria

              Bacteria were first detected in human tumors more than 100 years ago, but the characterization of the tumor microbiome has remained challenging because of its low biomass. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the tumor microbiome, studying 1526 tumors and their adjacent normal tissues across seven cancer types, including breast, lung, ovary, pancreas, melanoma, bone, and brain tumors. We found that each tumor type has a distinct microbiome composition and that breast cancer has a particularly rich and diverse microbiome. The intratumor bacteria are mostly intracellular and are present in both cancer and immune cells. We also noted correlations between intratumor bacteria or their predicted functions with tumor types and subtypes, patients’ smoking status, and the response to immunotherapy.

                Author and article information

                Vet Med Int
                Vet Med Int
                Veterinary Medicine International
                22 March 2023
                : 2023
                : 2582774
                1Department of Veterinary Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok10900, Thailand
                2Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen40002, Thailand
                3Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok10330, Thailand
                4Center of Excellence for Companion Animal Cancer, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok10330, Thailand
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Imtiaz Rabbani

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Chanokchon Setthawongsin et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 29 July 2022
                : 17 February 2023
                : 4 March 2023
                Funded by: Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute
                Research Article

                Veterinary medicine
                Veterinary medicine


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