In contrast to the decreasing burden related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the burden related to dysglycemia and adiposity complications is increasing in Czechia, and local drivers must be identified. A comprehensive literature review was performed to evaluate biological, behavioral, and environmental drivers of dysglycemia and abnormal adiposity in Czechia. Additionally, the structure of the Czech healthcare system was described. The prevalence of obesity in men and diabetes in both sexes has been increasing over the past 30 years. Possible reasons include the Eastern European eating pattern, high prevalence of physical inactivity and health illiteracy, education, and income-related health inequalities. Despite the advanced healthcare system based on the compulsory insurance model with free-for-service healthcare and a wide range of health-promoting initiatives, more effective strategies to tackle the adiposity/dysglycemia are needed. In conclusion, the disease burden related to dysglycemia and adiposity in Czechia remains high but is not translated into greater CVD. This discordant relationship likely depends more on other factors, such as improvements in dyslipidemia and hypertension control. A reconceptualization of abnormal adiposity and dysglycemia into a more actionable cardiometabolic-based chronic disease model is needed to improve the approach to these conditions. This review can serve as a platform to investigate causal mechanisms and secure effective management of cardiometabolic-based chronic disease.