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      Increased Renal Fibrosis and Expression of Renal Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase-β and Phospholipase C γ1 Proteins in Piglets Exposed to Ochratoxin-A

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          Endemic nephropathy has been linked to exposure of ochratoxin-A (OA) in grains and animal products. The underlying events surrounding this form of renal injury are not well known, partly due to the lack of a suitable animal model of the disease. Therefore, in this study, a pig model of OA-induced renal injury was established and used to examine whether elements of the phosphoinositide signalling pathway are altered in this disease. Weanling piglets were fed diets containing 0, 2, and 4 ppm OA for 6 weeks. Serum creatinine and urea and renal fibrosis were monitored biweekly using serial blood samples and renal biopsies. At termination, the protein levels of renal phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase-β (PtdIns4Kβ) and phospholipase C<sub>γ1</sub> (PLC<sub>γ1</sub>) were determined using immunoblotting and scanning densitometry. Serum creatinine was elevated by 2 weeks and renal fibrosis was elevated by 4 weeks at both levels of inclusion of OA. At the end of the experimental period, kidney size and water content were elevated, as were the protein levels of renal PtdIns4Kβ and PLC<sub>γ1</sub> in OA-exposed animals. Therefore, serial biopsies can be used to track changes in renal pathology in the OA-exposed piglet. We conclude that this is a useful model for OA-induced renal injury in which the underlying molecular events associated with this form of renal injury can be studied.

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          Treatment of polycystic kidney disease with a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

          Treatment of polycystic kidney disease with a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We have previously demonstrated an essential role for increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity in mediating renal cyst formation and biliary epithelial hyperplasia in murine models of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). This study was designed to determine whether or not treatment with a newly developed inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity (EKI-785) would reduce renal and biliary abnormalities in murine ARPKD. Balb/c-bpk/bpk (BPK) litters were treated with EKI-785, an EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Animals were treated by intraperitoneal injection beginning at postnatal day 7 and were treated until postnatal day 24 or 48. EKI-785's effectiveness was measured by a reduction in the renal cystic index, an increased life span, and maintenance of normal renal function. Treatment of BPK mice with EKI-785 resulted in a marked reduction of collecting tubule (CT) cystic lesions, improved renal function, decreased biliary epithelial abnormalities, and an increased life span. Untreated cystic animals died of renal failure at postnatal day 24 (P-24) with a CT cystic index of 4.8, a maximal urine osmolarity of 361 mOsm, and moderate to severe biliary abnormalities. Cystic animals treated with EKI-785 to postnatal day 48 (P-48) were alive and well with normal renal function, a reduced CT cystic index of 2.0 (P < 0.02), a threefold increased in maximum urinary concentrating ability (P < 0.01), and a significant decrease in biliary epithelial proliferation/fibrosis (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that EKI-785 has therapeutic effectiveness in improving histopathologic abnormalities and decreasing mortality in murine ARPKD.
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            Azaspiracid shellfish poisoning: unusual toxin dynamics in shellfish and the increased risk of acute human intoxications.

            A number of recent acute human intoxications in Europe from the consumption of Irish mussels have been attributed to the presence of a new class of toxins named azaspiracids. The study demonstrates that azaspiracids behave differently from other polyether toxins, and this accounts for most false-negative results in the mouse bioassay employed by regulatory agencies to detect azaspiracids. Typically, polyether toxins are concentrated in the digestive glands of shellfish, but this is not always the situation with azaspiracids. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), especially multiple tandem MS methods, have been applied to demonstrate that azaspiracid (AZA1) and its methyl- and demethyl- analogues, AZA2 and AZA3 respectively, are distributed throughout shellfish tissues. Using conventional mouse bioassay protocols, only 0-40% of the total azaspiracid content of shellfish was used in the assay, which could directly account for false-negative results. It was also observed that the toxin profiles differed significantly in various mussel tissues with AZA1 as the predominant toxin in the digestive glands and AZA3 predominant in the remaining tissues.
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              Flaxseed ameliorates interstitial nephritis in rat polycystic kidney disease.

              Flaxseed has demonstrated useful antiinflammatory properties in a number of animal models and human diseases. We undertook a study to determine if flaxseed would also modify clinical course and renal pathology in the Han:SPRD-cy rat. Male Han:SPRD-cy rats were pair fed a 10% flaxseed of control rat chow diet for eight weeks from weaning. Tissue was harvested for analysis of cystic change, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and fibrosis. Tissue was also harvested for lipid analysis using gas chromatography. Animals thrived on both diets. Flaxseed-fed animals had lower serum creatinine (69 vs. 81 mumol/liter, P = 0.02), less cystic change (1.78 vs. 2.03 ml/kg, P = 0.02), less renal fibrosis (0.60 vs. 0.93 ml/kg, P = 0.0009), and less macrophage infiltration (13.8 vs. 16.7 cells/high-power video field) of the renal interstitium than controls. The groups did not differ in renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation. Lipid analysis revealed significant renal enrichment of 18 and 20 carbon omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (total omega 6:omega 3 ratio 3.6 vs. 9.1, P < 0.0001). Flaxseed ameliorates Han:SPRD-cy rat polycystic kidney disease through moderation of the associated chronic interstitial nephritis. The diet alters renal content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in a manner that may promote the formation of less inflammatory classes of renal prostanoids.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                January 2004
                02 February 2004
                : 96
                : 1
                : p19-p25
                Departments of aHuman Nutritional Sciences, bAnimal Science, and cPediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man., Canada
                75576 Nephron Physiol 2004;96:p19–p25
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 30, Pages: 1
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