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      Interocular Asymmetry of Visual Field Loss, Intraocular Pressure, and Corneal Parameters in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma


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          Objectives: This study aimed to assess the association between the corneal biomechanical parameters and visual field (VF) loss in patients with asymmetric primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: A total of 89 POAG patients (50 males, 56.2%) with asymmetric VF loss, aged 65.2 ± 13.3 years, were enrolled in this study. Asymmetric VF loss was defined as an interocular difference of the global index mean deviation (MD) >2 dB. Intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), and corneal biomechanical parameters such as maximum amplitude at the apex of highest concavity (def ampl HC) were measured. The worse eye was defined as the eye with a smaller MD. Results: The worse eyes had lower MD (−11.9 ± 6.7 dB vs. −5.3 ± 5.0 dB; p < 0.001) and higher IOP (14.6 ± 3.3 vs.13.9 ± 2.6 mm Hg, p = 0.04) than the better eyes. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups for CCT. The interocular difference of MD (IDMD) was negatively correlated with the interocular difference of IOP ( r = −0.22, p = 0.04), while positively correlated with the interocular difference of def ampl HC ( r = 0.27, p = 0.01). In patients with moderate asymmetric VF loss (IDMD ≥6 dB), def ampl HC of the worse eyes group (1.07 ± 0.12 mm) was significantly lower than the better eyes group (1.10 ± 0.11 mm, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Asymmetric POAG was associated with asymmetry in IOP and corneal biomechanical parameters but not in CCT. Lower deflection amplitude and higher IOP were found in eyes with more severe VF damage in POAG patients.

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          Most cited references38

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          Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. Present estimates of global glaucoma prevalence are not up-to-date and focused mainly on European ancestry populations. We systematically examined the global prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and projected the number of affected people in 2020 and 2040. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data from 50 population-based studies (3770 POAG cases among 140,496 examined individuals and 786 PACG cases among 112 398 examined individuals). We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science for population-based studies of glaucoma prevalence published up to March 25, 2013. Hierarchical Bayesian approach was used to estimate the pooled glaucoma prevalence of the population aged 40-80 years along with 95% credible intervals (CrIs). Projections of glaucoma were estimated based on the United Nations World Population Prospects. Bayesian meta-regression models were performed to assess the association between the prevalence of POAG and the relevant factors. Prevalence and projection numbers of glaucoma cases. The global prevalence of glaucoma for population aged 40-80 years is 3.54% (95% CrI, 2.09-5.82). The prevalence of POAG is highest in Africa (4.20%; 95% CrI, 2.08-7.35), and the prevalence of PACG is highest in Asia (1.09%; 95% CrI, 0.43-2.32). In 2013, the number of people (aged 40-80 years) with glaucoma worldwide was estimated to be 64.3 million, increasing to 76.0 million in 2020 and 111.8 million in 2040. In the Bayesian meta-regression model, men were more likely to have POAG than women (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% CrI, 1.23-1.52), and after adjusting for age, gender, habitation type, response rate, and year of study, people of African ancestry were more likely to have POAG than people of European ancestry (OR, 2.80; 95% CrI, 1.83-4.06), and people living in urban areas were more likely to have POAG than those in rural areas (OR, 1.58; 95% CrI, 1.19-2.04). The number of people with glaucoma worldwide will increase to 111.8 million in 2040, disproportionally affecting people residing in Asia and Africa. These estimates are important in guiding the designs of glaucoma screening, treatment, and related public health strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review.

            Glaucoma is a worldwide leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Because it may be asymptomatic until a relatively late stage, diagnosis is frequently delayed. A general understanding of the disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment may assist primary care physicians in referring high-risk patients for comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and in more actively participating in the care of patients affected by this condition. To describe current evidence regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and manuscript references for studies published in English between January 2000 and September 2013 on the topics open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. From the 4334 abstracts screened, 210 articles were selected that contained information on pathophysiology and treatment with relevance to primary care physicians. The glaucomas are a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and resulting changes in the optic nerve head. Loss of ganglion cells is related to the level of intraocular pressure, but other factors may also play a role. Reduction of intraocular pressure is the only proven method to treat the disease. Although treatment is usually initiated with ocular hypotensive drops, laser trabeculoplasty and surgery may also be used to slow disease progression. Primary care physicians can play an important role in the diagnosis of glaucoma by referring patients with positive family history or with suspicious optic nerve head findings for complete ophthalmologic examination. They can improve treatment outcomes by reinforcing the importance of medication adherence and persistence and by recognizing adverse reactions from glaucoma medications and surgeries.
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              The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study: baseline factors that predict the onset of primary open-angle glaucoma.

              The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) has shown that topical ocular hypotensive medication is effective in delaying or preventing the onset of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in individuals with elevated intraocular pressure (ocular hypertension) and no evidence of glaucomatous damage. To describe baseline demographic and clinical factors that predict which participants in the OHTS developed POAG. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected prior to randomization except for corneal thickness measurements, which were performed during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify factors that predicted which participants in the OHTS developed POAG. In univariate analyses, baseline factors that predicted the development of POAG included older age, race (African American), sex (male), larger vertical cup-disc ratio, larger horizontal cup-disc ratio, higher intraocular pressure, greater Humphrey visual field pattern standard deviation, heart disease, and thinner central corneal measurement. In multivariate analyses, baseline factors that predicted the development of POAG included older age, larger vertical or horizontal cup-disc ratio, higher intraocular pressure, greater pattern standard deviation, and thinner central corneal measurement. Baseline age, vertical and horizontal cup-disc ratio, pattern standard deviation, and intraocular pressure were good predictors for the onset of POAG in the OHTS. Central corneal thickness was found to be a powerful predictor for the development of POAG.

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                September 2021
                06 August 2020
                : 64
                : 5
                : 857-862
                [_a] aThe Eye Hospital, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China
                [_b] bCaribbean Eye Institute, Valsayn, Trinidad and Tobago
                [_c] cGlaucoma Institute, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China
                [_d] dDepartment of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Eye Diseases, Shanghai, China
                [_e] eNational Clinical Research Center for Ocular Diseases, Wenzhou, China
                510716 Ophthalmic Res 2021;64:857–862
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 22 May 2020
                : 04 August 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 6
                Research Article

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Intraocular pressure,Corneal biomechanical parameters,Asymmetric visual field loss,Primary open-angle glaucoma


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