The high mortality rate seen in dialysis patients is related to long-standing high blood pressure and the presence of other traditional as well as non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is associated with increased risk for left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and cerebrovascular complications. High blood pressure is frequent and difficult to control in the dialysis population. Available therapeutic options to normalize blood pressure in these patients include dietary salt and fluid restriction in combination with reduction of dialysate sodium concentration. A possible treatment option for these patients may be long, slow hemodialysis (3 × 8 h per week); short daily hemodialysis (2–3 h 7 times per week); nocturnal hemodialysis (6–7 times overnight per week). Reduction of residual renal function is a major cause of blood pressure increase in the peritoneal dialysis patient population. Therefore, hyperhydration should be avoided. If antihypertensive medication is needed, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and/or calcium channel blockers are recommended. Optimal blood pressure in dialysis patients is not different from recommendations for the general population.