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      Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter

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          Abstract

          Although stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative.

          The control of water pollution has become of increasing importance in recent years. The release of dyes into the environment constitutes only a small proportion of water pollution, but dyes are visible in small quantities due to their brilliance. Tightening government legislation is forcing textile industries to treat their waste effluent to an increasingly high standard. Currently, removal of dyes from effluents is by physio-chemical means. Such methods are often very costly and although the dyes are removed, accumulation of concentrated sludge creates a disposal problem. There is a need to find alternative treatments that are effective in removing dyes from large volumes of effluents and are low in cost, such as biological or combination systems. This article reviews the current available technologies and suggests an effective, cheaper alternative for dye removal and decolourisation applicable on large scale.
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            Error bars in experimental biology

            Error bars commonly appear in figures in publications, but experimental biologists are often unsure how they should be used and interpreted. In this article we illustrate some basic features of error bars and explain how they can help communicate data and assist correct interpretation. Error bars may show confidence intervals, standard errors, standard deviations, or other quantities. Different types of error bars give quite different information, and so figure legends must make clear what error bars represent. We suggest eight simple rules to assist with effective use and interpretation of error bars.
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              The zinc homeostasis network of land plants.

              The use of the essential element zinc (Zn) in the biochemistry of land plants is widespread, and thus comparable to that in other eukaryotes. Plants have evolved the ability to adjust to vast fluctuations in external Zn supply, and they can store considerable amounts of Zn inside cell vacuoles. Moreover, among plants there is overwhelming, but yet little explored, natural genetic diversity that phenotypically affects Zn homeostasis. This results in the ability of specific races or species to thrive in different soils ranging from extremely Zn-deficient to highly Zn-polluted. Zn homeostasis is maintained by a tightly regulated network of low-molecular-weight ligands, membrane transport and Zn-binding proteins, as well as regulators. Here we review Zn homeostasis of land plants largely based on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, for which our molecular understanding is most developed at present. There is some evidence for substantial conservation of Zn homeostasis networks among land pants, and this review can serve as a reference for future comparisons. Major progress has recently been made in our understanding of the regulation of transcriptional Zn deficiency responses and the role of the low-molecular-weight chelator nicotianamine in plant Zn homeostasis. Moreover, we have begun to understand how iron (Fe) and Zn homeostasis interact as a consequence of the chemical similarity between their divalent cations and the lack of specificity of the major root iron uptake transporter IRT1. The molecular analysis of Zn-hyperaccumulating plants reveals how metal homeostasis networks can be effectively modified. These insights are important for sustainable bio-fortification approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                8 December 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]UCT Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Technicka 3, Prague, Czech Republic
                [2 ]UCT Prague, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Technicka 3, Prague, Czech Republic
                MJP Rohilkhand University, INDIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: TM.

                • Data curation: LM PP.

                • Formal analysis: BV VB PP.

                • Funding acquisition: TM PL.

                • Investigation: JV.

                • Methodology: JV ZJ MM.

                • Project administration: TM PL.

                • Resources: JV.

                • Software: LM.

                • Supervision: TM.

                • Validation: LM.

                • Visualization: JV.

                • Writing – original draft: JV.

                • Writing – review & editing: LM TM PL.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-34564
                10.1371/journal.pone.0167927
                5145202
                27930707
                © 2016 Viktorova et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002969, Technologická Agentura České Republiky;
                Award ID: TA03011184
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001824, Grantová Agentura České Republiky;
                Award ID: 15-22276S
                This work was supported by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic of project No. TA03011184 and by Grant Agency of the Czech Republic of project No. 15-22276S.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Agricultural Soil Science
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Soil Science
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                Biotechnology
                Applied Microbiology
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