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      Metastatic leiomyosarcoma presenting as a lung mass with left atrial extension: case report and anesthetic management

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Lung metastasis of leiomyosarcoma that protrudes into the left atrium is an extremely rare condition. Severe complications may occur that prominently increase the mortality during the perioperative period. Currently, the anesthetic management reports are limited and there is no generally acknowledged algorithm available.

          Case presentation

          A 67-year-old man presented with cough and dyspnea for 10 days. Workup revealed bilateral pulmonary effusion. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large mass in the left atrium. Urgent surgical resection under cardiopulmonary bypass was performed. We focused on oxygenation improvement and cardiac function management by applying protective ventilation with low positive end expiratory pressure, low dose inotropic agents, and other methods to maintain stable homeostasis. Results of biopsy established a diagnosis of metastatic leiomyosarcoma.

          Conclusion

          We reported a case of metastatic leiomyosarcoma presenting as a lung mass with left atrial extension and anesthetic management during surgical resection. Treating acute heart failure and refractory hypoxemia was the key focus perioperatively.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Age-related iso-MAC charts for isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane in man.

          The motivation for this study was the current difficulty in estimating the total age-related MAC for a patient in a clinical setting. Age-related iso-MAC charts for isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane were developed for the clinically useful MAC range (0.6-1.6), age range 5-95 yr, and put in a convenient form for use by practising anaesthetists. The charts are based on Mapleson's meta-analysis (1996) of the available MAC data and can be used to allow for the contribution of nitrous oxide to the total MAC. The charts indicate the influence of age on anaesthetic requirements, showing, for example, that a total MAC of 1.2 using isoflurane and nitrous oxide 67% in oxygen requires an end-expired isoflurane concentration of only 0.25% in a patient of 95 yr vs 1% in a 5-yr-old patient. Colleagues found the charts to be helpful and simple to use clinically. The iso-MAC charts show clearly how patient age can be used to guide the choice of end-expired agent concentration. They also allow a consistent total MAC to be maintained when changing the inspired nitrous oxide concentration, thereby reducing the chance of inadvertent awareness, particularly at the extremes of age.
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            Intraoperative protective mechanical ventilation and risk of postoperative respiratory complications: hospital based registry study

            Objective To evaluate the effects of intraoperative protective ventilation on major postoperative respiratory complications and to define safe intraoperative mechanical ventilator settings that do not translate into an increased risk of postoperative respiratory complications. Design Hospital based registry study. Setting Academic tertiary care hospital and two affiliated community hospitals in Massachusetts, United States. Participants 69 265 consecutively enrolled patients over the age of 18 who underwent a non-cardiac surgical procedure between January 2007 and August 2014 and required general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Interventions Protective ventilation, defined as a median positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH2O or more, a median tidal volume of less than 10 mL/kg of predicted body weight, and a median plateau pressure of less than 30 cmH2O. Main outcome measure Composite outcome of major respiratory complications, including pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, pneumonia, and re-intubation. Results Of the 69 265 enrolled patients 34 800 (50.2%) received protective ventilation and 34 465 (49.8%) received non-protective ventilation intraoperatively. Protective ventilation was associated with a decreased risk of postoperative respiratory complications in multivariable regression (adjusted odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.98, P=0.013). The results were similar in the propensity score matched cohort (odds ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.97, P=0.004). A PEEP of 5 cmH2O and median plateau pressures of 16 cmH2O or less were associated with the lowest risk of postoperative respiratory complications. Conclusions Intraoperative protective ventilation was associated with a decreased risk of postoperative respiratory complications. A PEEP of 5 cmH2O and a plateau pressure of 16 cmH2O or less were identified as protective mechanical ventilator settings. These findings suggest that protective thresholds differ for intraoperative ventilation in patients with normal lungs compared with those used for patients with acute lung injury.
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              Incidence of mortality and morbidity related to postoperative lung injury in patients who have undergone abdominal or thoracic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Lung injury is a serious complication of surgery. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether incidence, morbidity, and in-hospital mortality associated with postoperative lung injury are affected by type of surgery and whether outcomes are dependent on type of ventilation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                19 January 2018
                : 14
                : 141-147
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology
                [2 ]Department of Cardiac Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Cheng Ni; Qing Zheng, Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Rd., Haidian District, Beijing 100191, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 8226 7270, Fax +86 10 8226 7276, Email nicheng@ 123456hsc.pku.edu.cn ; zhengqing1970@ 123456live.cn
                Article
                tcrm-14-141
                10.2147/TCRM.S153484
                5783153
                © 2018 Qu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Medicine

                acute heart failure, hypoxemia, anesthesia, leiomyosarcoma, metastatic

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