Objective To systematically evaluate the correlation between the positive rate of sputum bacterial culture and the results of drug sensitivity test and the severity of the disease and its clinical significance, so as to provide evidence-based medicine for clinical application. Methods PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Network Database (CNKI), China VIP Database, Wanfang Database, and China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) online database were used. The retrieval time limit was from the establishment of the database to the present. Data for all included studies were extracted by two independent researchers, and the risk of bias for the quality of each included study was assessed by the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0 criteria. RevMan5.4 statistical software was used to analyze the collected data by meta. Results In the end, 6 RCT articles were included. Overall, 613 samples were included in 6 RCT studies. The correlation between the positive rate of sputum bacterial culture in inpatients and the severity of the disease was meta-analyzed. The heterogeneity test results showed that Chi2 = 177.20, df = 3, P 0.05, and I2 = 0%, indicating that there was no heterogeneity among the included research data. In addition, the combined effect of WMD was analyzed by the fixed effect model. The combined effect dose WMD test was Z = 6.58 (P < 0.00001). It was considered that there was a correlation between the results of the drug sensitivity test and the severity of the disease. Conclusion There is a correlation between positive sputum culture and drug sensitivity test results and the severity of the disease in hospitalized patients. In clinical practice, for hospitalized patients, the positive sputum bacterial culture rate and drug sensitivity test results can be used to guide the appropriate use of antibiotics. Due to the low input from the literature, more studies with higher methodological quality and longer follow-up are needed for further validation.