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Tamaño y viabilidad de semillas: implicancias en la evolución y conservación de Phaius tankervilleae (Orchidaceae) Translated title: Seed size and viability: implications on the evolution and conservation of Phaius tankervilleae (Orchidaceae)

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      Abstract

      RESUMEN Phaius tankervilleae es una orquídea terrestre altamente apreciada como ornamental y medicinal, razón por la cual se encuentra en peligro de extinción en algunos países como Australia y Japón. Generar información sobre las dimensiones y el vigor de la semilla es importante para entender aspectos de la evolución de la especie y encontrar métodos de conservación. Este estudio tuvo como finalidad poner a prueba la hipótesis, de que el tamaño y viabilidad de las semillas de P. tankervilleae están positivamente relacionados con el tamaño del fruto. Para realizar el estudio se cosecharon frutos de diferentes tamaños, de los cuales se tomaron muestras de 2,5 mg de semillas por frutos. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de las semillas mediante observaciones en microscopio. Las semillas de cada tamaño de fruto fueron sometidas a un test de Tetrazolio para determinar viabilidad y se les tomaron mediciones del largo, ancho y volumen tanto de la testa como del embrión. Las semillas con embrión son fusiformes y las vanas son filiformes, el embrión es relativamente pequeño y las semillas de fruto mediano son las que presentan menor espacio de aire. Los resultados confirman la hipótesis planteada, cuanto más pequeño es el fruto menor es el tamaño y la cantidad de semillas viables. Por consiguiente, si se desea tener mayor cantidad de semillas de buena calidad es recomendable cosechar frutos de mayor tamaño.

      Translated abstract

      ABSTRACT Phaius tankervilleae is a terrestrial orchid highly prized as ornamental and medicinal, which is why it is in danger of extinction in some countries such as Australia and Japan. Generating information on seed size and vigor is important in understanding aspects of the evolution of the species and finding conservation methods. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the size and viability of P. tankervilleae seeds are positively related to fruit size. In order to carry out the study, fruits of different sizes were harvested, from which samples of 2.5 mg of seeds per fruit were taken. Morphological characterization of the seeds was carried out by means of microscope observations. A Tetrazolium test was carried out to determine the viability of seeds and measurements were taken of the length, width, and volume of both the testa and the embryo. Seeds with embryos are fusiform and the empty one are filiform, the embryo is relatively small and the seeds of medium size fruit are those that have less air space. The results confirm the hypothesis, the smaller the fruit the smaller the size and the number of viable seeds. Therefore, to have more seeds of good quality it is advisable to harvest larger fruits.

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      Most cited references 59

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      Functional extinction of birds drives rapid evolutionary changes in seed size.

      Local extinctions have cascading effects on ecosystem functions, yet little is known about the potential for the rapid evolutionary change of species in human-modified scenarios. We show that the functional extinction of large-gape seed dispersers in the Brazilian Atlantic forest is associated with the consistent reduction of the seed size of a keystone palm species. Among 22 palm populations, areas deprived of large avian frugivores for several decades present smaller seeds than nondefaunated forests, with negative consequences for palm regeneration. Coalescence and phenotypic selection models indicate that seed size reduction most likely occurred within the past 100 years, associated with human-driven fragmentation. The fast-paced defaunation of large vertebrates is most likely causing unprecedented changes in the evolutionary trajectories and community composition of tropical forests.
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        A brief history of seed size.

        Improved phylogenies and the accumulation of broad comparative data sets have opened the way for phylogenetic analyses to trace trait evolution in major groups of organisms. We arrayed seed mass data for 12,987 species on the seed plant phylogeny and show the history of seed size from the emergence of the angiosperms through to the present day. The largest single contributor to the present-day spread of seed mass was the divergence between angiosperms and gymnosperms, whereas the widest divergence was between Celastraceae and Parnassiaceae. Wide divergences in seed size were more often associated with divergences in growth form than with divergences in dispersal syndrome or latitude. Cross-species studies and evolutionary theory are consistent with this evidence that growth form and seed size evolve in a coordinated manner.
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          Variation in sexual reproduction in orchids and its evolutionary consequences: a spasmodic journey to diversification

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Misiones orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Misiones orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Forestales Argentina
            Misiones orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Misiones orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Forestales Argentina
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            cal
            Caldasia
            Caldasia
            Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias-Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia )
            0366-5232
            December 2017
            : 39
            : 2
            : 388-399
            S0366-52322017000200388 10.15446/caldasia.v39n2.62184

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 59, Pages: 12
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            Product Information: SciELO Colombia

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