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      Phytochemical analysis and anticancer activity of Falcaria vulgaris Bernh growing in Moghan plain, northwest of Iran

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          Abstract

          Background

          Falcaria vulgaris Bernh among the most important member of Apiaceae family has been used for medical investigation in Iran and some regions in the world. This plant possesses a range of coumarin and flavonoids compounds that have many therapeutic properties such as gastrointestinal and liver diseases, skin ulcers, gastric ulcers, and intestinal inflammation. It has also been found that these compounds lead to cytotoxic effects.

          Objective

          This study contains concentrates on the cytotoxic effect and induction of apoptosis on cancerous cells (SW-872) through various extracts and essential oil of Falcaria vulgaris Bernh. It considers the volatile compounds of effective samples.

          Methods

          The shoot of the plant was extracted by the Soxhlet apparatus and its essential oil was taken by the Clevenger apparatus. The cytotoxicity of the samples was evaluated by the MTT method and the mechanism of cancer cell death by flow cytometry and finally, the volatile compounds of essential oils and effective extracts were identified by GC-MS.

          Results

          The results demonstrated that n-Hexane extract and 40% VLC fraction had the greatest cytotoxic effect on SW-872 cells. While, the most abundant volatile compounds in essential oil and 40% VLC fraction of n-Hexane extract were terpenoid compounds like (+) spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide, in n-Hexane extract tetradecan, and spathulenol were the most, respectively.

          Conclusion

          The fraction of 40% n-Hexane was in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly with controlling cells inhibited the growth of cancer cells. A plausible explanation could be made to account for this effect. This inhibition was made through induction of apoptosis and due to the presence of effective volatile compounds such as terpenoids and non-terpenoids which could be considered as valuable natural sources for the isolation of anti-cancer compounds.

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          Most cited references43

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          Cancer Statistics, 2020: Report From National Cancer Registry Programme, India

          PURPOSE The systematic collection of data on cancer is being performed by various population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) and hospital-based cancer registries (HBCRs) across India under the National Cancer Registry Programme–National Centre for Disease Informatics and Research of Indian Council of Medical Research since 1982. METHODS This study examined the cancer incidence, patterns, trends, projections, and mortality from 28 PBCRs and also the stage at presentation and type of treatment of patients with cancer from 58 HBCRs (N = 667,666) from the pooled analysis for the composite period 2012-2016. Time trends in cancer incidence rate were generated as annual percent change from 16 PBCRs (those with a minimum of 10 years of continuous good data available) using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Aizawl district (269.4) and Papumpare district (219.8) had the highest age-adjusted incidence rates among males and females, respectively. The projected number of patients with cancer in India is 1,392,179 for the year 2020, and the common 5 leading sites are breast, lung, mouth, cervix uteri, and tongue. Trends in cancer incidence rate showed an increase in all sites of cancer in both sexes and were high in Kamrup urban (annual percent change, 3.8%; P < .05). The majority of the patients with cancer were diagnosed at the locally advanced stage for breast (57.0%), cervix uteri (60.0%), head and neck (66.6%), and stomach (50.8%) cancer, whereas in lung cancer, distant metastasis was predominant among males (44.0%) and females (47.6%). CONCLUSION This study provides a framework for assessing the status and trends of cancer in India. It shall guide appropriate support for action to strengthen efforts to improve cancer prevention and control to achieve the national noncommunicable disease targets and the sustainable development goals.
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            Arthropod steroid hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) suppresses IL-1β- induced catabolic gene expression in cartilage

            Background In osteoarthritis (OA), the imbalance of chondrocytes’ anabolic and catabolic factors can induce cartilage destruction. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that is capable of inducing chondrocytes and synovial cells to synthesize MMPs. The hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha (HIF-2alpha, encoded by Epas1) is the catabolic transcription factor in the osteoarthritic process. The purpose of this study is to validate the effects of ecdysteroids (Ecd) on IL-1β- induced cartilage catabolism and the possible role of Ecd in treatment or prevention of early OA. Methods Chondrocytes and articular cartilage was harvested from newborn ICR mice. Ecd effect on chondrocytes viability was tested and the optimal concentration was determined by MTT assay. The effect of HIF-2α (EPAS1) in cartilage catabolism simulated by IL-1β (5 ng/ml) was evaluated by articular cartilage explants culture. The effects of Ecd on IL-1β-induced inflammatory conditions and their related catabolic genes expression were analyzed. Results Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) treatment on primary mouse articular cartilage explants enhanced their Epas1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3, MMP-13) and ADAMTS-5 genes expression and down-regulated collagen type II (Col2a1) gene expression. With the pre-treatment of 10−8M Ecd, the catabolic effects of IL-1β on articular cartilage were scavenged. Conclusion In conclusions, Ecd can reduce the IL-1β-induced inflammatory effect of the cartilage. Ecd may suppress IL-1β- induced cartilage catabolism via HIF-2α pathway.
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              Apoptosis as a novel target for cancer chemoprevention.

              Cancer chemopreventive agents are typically natural products or their synthetic analogs that inhibit the transformation of normal cells to premalignant cells or the progression of premalignant cells to malignant cells. These agents are believed to function by modulating processes associated with xenobiotic biotransformation, with the protection of cellular elements from oxidative damage, or with the promotion of a more differentiated phenotype in target cells. However, an increasing number of chemopreventive agents (e.g., certain retinoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, polyphenols, and vanilloids) have been shown to stimulate apoptosis in premalignant and malignant cells in vitro or in vivo. Apoptosis is arguably the most potent defense against cancer because it is the mechanism used by metazoans to eliminate deleterious cells. Many chemopreventive agents appear to target signaling intermediates in apoptosis-inducing pathways. Inherently, the process of carcinogenesis selects against apoptosis to initiate, promote, and perpetuate the malignant phenotype. Thus, targeting apoptosis pathways in premalignant cells--in which these pathways are still relatively intact--may be an effective method of cancer prevention. In this review, we construct a paradigm supporting apoptosis as a novel target for cancer chemoprevention by highlighting recent studies of several chemopreventive agents that engage apoptosis pathways.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                parina.asgharian@gmail.com
                t.tarhriz@yahoo.com
                Journal
                BMC Complement Med Ther
                BMC Complement Med Ther
                BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies
                BioMed Central (London )
                2662-7671
                5 December 2021
                5 December 2021
                2021
                : 21
                : 294
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.412888.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, Molecular Medicine Research Center, Biomedicine Institute, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [2 ]GRID grid.412571.4, ISNI 0000 0000 8819 4698, Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, ; Shiraz, Iran
                [3 ]GRID grid.412888.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, Biotechnology Research Center, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [4 ]GRID grid.412888.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, Drug Applied research Center, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                [5 ]GRID grid.412888.f, ISNI 0000 0001 2174 8913, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, ; Tabriz, Iran
                Article
                3464
                10.1186/s12906-021-03464-2
                8645078
                34865625
                01b0c2bc-304a-4635-bc1e-e4f039f6ef22
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 6 July 2021
                : 16 November 2021
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                falcaria vulgaris bernh,cancerous cells,gc-ms,cytotoxicity,apoptosis,volatile compounds

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